Tutor profile: Saman G.
What is the difference between substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation? Which is more efficient?
Substrate level phosphorylation is the formation of ATP (or GTP) from ADP (or GDP). Oxidative phosphorylation is when oxidation and phosphorylation are coupled. The oxidation of NADH to NAD+, yields 3 ATP. While that of FADH2 to FAD, yields 2 ATP. ATP synthase uses electrochemical gradient to produce more ATP Most ATP is generated by oxidative phosphorylation. However, substrate-level phosphorylation is a quicker, but less efficient source of ATP.
What protein is used to transport oxygen in the blood? Describe its structure and the mechanism that facilitates its binding to oxygen.
Hemoglobin is used to transport oxygen in the blood. It is made up of 4 subunits, each has heme and a polypeptide. A heme is a cofactor with iron. Each iron binds to 1 oxygen molecule so it can carry a total of 4 oxygen molecules. The mechanism of binding is called cooperativity. This means that substrate molecules prime enzymes to act more readily. When an oxygen binds to the first subunit, the others change slightly, increasing the affinity for oxygen.
Differentiate between the Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System.
The Central Nervous System (CNS) contains neurons that carry out integration of sensory output via interneurons. This system includes the brain and spinal cord. The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) includes sensory and motor neurons which carry info in and out of the CNS. This system includes nerves, which leave the brain and spinal cord and travel to areas in the body.
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