Tutor profile: Mark M.
Subject: World History
What factors contributed to the growth of European imperialism in the late 19th century?
Beginning in the 1870s, the major European powers established overseas empires in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East due to a number of factors. First, there were economic impulses spurred on by developments in the technologies of production and transportation associated with the Second Industrial Revolution. As a result, European countries sought overseas markets for their goods as well as sources of cheap raw materials and labor. As this was also the era of the mass ideology of nationalism, major European powers competed with each other for possession of overseas markets and colonies, which inspired national pride and political support in domestic European populations. Thus, economic competition, in turn, fueled military competition, especially in the form of large naval fleets to acquire and defend imperial conquests. Related to nationalism, was the supporting idea of a ‘civilizing mission’ to bring supposedly superior European religious, cultural and social practices to so-called backward nations. This idea functioned as a rationale for imperialism’s otherwise aggressive character. Although there is not one sole cause of European imperial expansion in the late 19th century, all of these contributed to its development and growth.
Subject: US History
What was the political significance of the Alien and Sedition Acts in the early years of the American Republic?
The Alien and Sedition Acts expressed the political tension between the Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties in the early years of the American Republic. The Federalists, represented by President John Adams, supported a strong central government and some Federalists viewed the Democratic-Republicans with suspicion for their perceived affinity with the revolutionary regime in France and their significant support among non-English ethnic groups such as the Irish. Federalists saw French influence and foreigners as a deep threat to American security. Thus the series of laws were passed under President Adams, which increased residency requirement for American citizenship from five to fourteen years, allowed the president to imprison or deport aliens, and restricted political speech critical of the federal government. The Democratic-Republicans, represented by Thomas Jefferson, viewed the acts as unconstitutional, and a violation of states’ rights. Outrage against the acts led to the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions invalidating the acts in those states, and is seen as having fueled public anger that resulted in the Democratic-Republicans coming to power with the election of Jefferson in 1800.
Subject: European History
What were some of the underlying causes that led to the French Revolution?
Although there is debate among historians about the various causes of the French Revolution, there are several that are recognized as being strong contributing factors. These include the rise of the French middle class and its exclusion from political participation and power, and the resentment of the French peasantry at the restrictions of the feudal system. Together with this, there was also a long period of economic mismanagement by the aristocracy coupled with an unfair tax burden on the rest of French society. Other political factors were the spread of Enlightenment ideas of reason and science which undermined old concepts of the divine right of kings, and the example of the successful American Revolution, which had overthrown imperial rule by Britain and replaced it with a republic.
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