What is the difference between the second-person pronouns "tú", "vos," and "usted,"and where are these forms used in common speech?
The usage of "tú" and "vos" are referred to as "tutear" and "voseo," respectively. Voseo is the predominant pronoun in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, and it coexist with tuteo in Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras. In these latter countries, "vos" is more informal and familiar than "tú," which is yet superseded in formality by "usted." Everywhere else, the voseo is rarely used, with "tú" being the more informal second-person pronoun and usted being the more formal.
What were the original aims of the Spanish-American War, and how were the sincerity of these reasons undermined by the results of an American victory?
The United States originally claimed that it went to war for the cause of Cuban independence from imperial Spain, after "yellow journalism" reports of brutality on the island. However, an American victory resulted in the US gaining colonial territory in Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines, and these territories continued to remain under U.S. control. The U.S. required the new Cuban government to contain the Platt Amendment in their constitution, a clause that essentially stipulated American dominance over Cuba.
Broadly applied, how do the views expressed in Max Weber's "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism" influence our view of the formation of types of government?
While Weber argued specifically that the values of the Protestant religion created the ideal conditions for the formation of a capitalist society, these ideas have been expanded upon by modern political philosophers to theorize that cultural and religious values have a huge impact on the kind of economic and political system that forms in a nation. For example, many academics believe that socialism functions well in Scandinavian societies because of an ethnically homogeneous society and a cultural history of collectivism in order to survive long winters.