# Tutor profile: Nikola M.

## Questions

### Subject: Psychology

What are the psychological and pharmacotherapy treatments of Panic Disorder?

To treat a panic disorder with psychological treatment, you must first understand the theory behind the treatment. The general idea is that panic is a learned response: so, if you learned it, you can un-learn it. This can be done through interroceptive exposure, situation exposure, and cognitive therapy. In interroceptive exposure, exercises are designed to induce the sensations of panic. Then, you practice the ones that are most like your symptoms to understand that they are merely bodily sensations that do not imply impending doom. In situation exposure, you put your patient in situations that induce panic and treat them: let them feel their bodily sensations until they understand that their symptoms of panic are just bodily sensations that do not imply impending doom. In cognitive therapy, the patient and the therapist work together to try and manage the disorder. In pharmacotherapy, you use medication to treat the symptoms of panic disorder. 2 medications are benzodiazepines (AKA benzo) and SSRIs. Benzo is used to stop the symptoms on the spot. As an individual starts to feel the symptoms of a panic attack, they can take a benzo pill, which causes them to calm down and no longer panic. It is very effective at reducing panic attacks. SSRIs are used to shorten the occurrence of panic attacks. For example, a person experiences 5 panic attacks a day, but after taking SSRIs for a period of time, they have 0-2 panic attacks a day. It is very effective at reducing panic attacks. However, relapse is VERY high (90%) once going off the medication. Why? Patients grow dependent on the medication, believing that the medication alone stops their panic attacks, where in reality, that belief caused the patient to never unlearn their learned panic response. This is why psychologists and psychiatrists try to not medicate patients with Panic Disorder and prefer to use psychological treatments.

### Subject: Calculus

Use the method of Lagrange multipliers to find the values of x and y that minimize x^2+xy+y^2-2x-5y subject to the constraint 1-x+y=0.

f(x,y)= x^2+xy+y^2-2x-5y g(x,y)= 1-x+y f(x,y,delta)= x^2+xy+y^2-2x-5y+delta-xdelta+ydelta Fx(x,y,delta)= 2x+y-2-delta Fy(x,y,delta)= x+2y-5+delta delta = 2x+y-2 delta= -x-2y+5 delta=delta 2x+y-2 = -x-2y+5 3x= -3y+7 x= -y+(7/3) Now we find y with Fdelta(x,y,delta) Fdelta(x,y,delta)= 1-x+y 0 = 1-x+y plug in our x value 0 = 1-(-y+(7/3))+y 0 = 1+y-(7/3)+y y= 2/3 plug y in to our x equation to find the true value of x x= -y+(7/3) x= -(2/3)+(7/3) x=5/3 The values of x and y that minimize f(x,y)= x^2+xy+y^2-2x-5y to the constraint g(x,y)= 1-x+y are x= 5/3 and y= 2/3.

### Subject: World History

How were the Punic Wars responsible for Roman Imperialism?

The Punic Wars caused major chances in Ancient Rome. First of all, the wars caused expansion in Rome, shifted policies (which caused the gap between the economic classes to grow). Imperialism expanded Rome and allowed Rome to conquer more land, and because of that, allowed Rome to rule more people. After Rome finally conquered Carthage, Rome was left impoverished and needed more wealth, which caused the Romans to conquer more lands and more people in order to attain more wealth. This began a chain of wars, which in the end, caused an unstable environment in Rome due to the increasing population and scarcity of food.

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