To what extent do parents contribute to their infants’ attachment organisation?
Ainsworth reported that attentive mothers, who were sensitive to their child’s attachment signals and responded promptly, had secure bonds. These mothers were highly compassionate, ensuring close proximity at all times. Since then, numerous studies have been conducted providing evidence for a causal role of parental sensitivity in the formation of attachment organisation. DeWolff & van IJzendoorn (1997) carried out a meta-analysis, and found a strong association between attachment security and numerous parenting dimensions. And so, parental sensitivity does contribute to infants’ attachment organisation . However infant temperament may affect interaction and thus also influence.
What is inattentional blindness?
It is the inability to notice unexpected objects. The phenomenon can be best observed under experimental conditions, where a high percentage of participants will report missing prominent objects even though they appear right in front of their eyes. Our brains are bombarded with an abundance of sensory stimuli every second, so attention is necessary to reduce this information overload as it would not be possible to fully process all the information it receives. Subsequently, we actively filter specific information presented to us. It determines what we perceive and therefore, is useful, as it allows us to focus on what is important in the environment. This filtering of information by focussing our attention on specific stimuli, causes inattentional blindness.
What is a more effective channel of communication between American citizens and their local elected officials; public opinion polls or political participation?
A key component of a representative democracy involves citizens’ views being known to the politicians, so that they can influence policy. Public opinion polls and political participation are the main ways in which citizens can communicate with their elected officials, to ensure their opinions are articulated. This paper will discuss the role of both of these methods and weigh up their significance. Public opinion polls question citizens, with the purpose to indicate what the population thinks about current polices. More broadly, is political participation, which is any variety of activity involving the political system Political participation goes far beyond just voting, it is any way in which citizens participate in politics and attempt to make their opinions known to elected representatives. There are two main types of political participation, both of which attempt to influence policy makers; conventional and unconventional. Conventional methods can include campaign activities, petitions and contacting your local representative. Contrastingly, unconventional methods involve alternative and possibly disruptive methods, such as protests, sit-ins and violence. Polls can also be an effective means of constituents channelling their preferences and concerns to their elected officials. When a member of Congress invites their constituency to complete a poll, this allows the member of Congress an insight into the thoughts of their constituents, and what is important to them. There are numerous scientific and reliable polls that can be administered; including mail surveys, interviews and online surveys. Recently, polls have been aggregated through sophisticated weighting, ensuring the feedback is more holistic. Utilizing poll results, the elected official has a record of what their constituents are feeling, which should influence them to address any outstanding issues. To conclude, Political participation is a better form of communication between citizens and their elected officials. Polls provide politicians with useful information, however this information is limited and restrained because the politician can interpret the results how they want. This differs with participation, which is a much more active and discernible method. By citizens actively expressing their concerns, gathering in large numbers and eliciting much attention via blogs, social media and petitions; this makes it significantly harder for politicians to ignore the intense issues.