Tutor profile: Sofia C.
What are the three common rhetorical tools one can use in an argumentative text?
Although not common, pathos is a rhetorical tool that seeks to evoke an emotional response from the audience. It often involves telling a personal story or using a case study to give specific details. For example, to illustrate the importance of opioid addiction recovery centers, one could tell the story of a family friend who struggled with a heroin addiction until their overdose at a young age. This is pathos because it appeals to one's emotions to stress a point. Ethos is often employed, though subtly. It refers to one establishing their credentials or expertise in the relevant field. For example, an article written about the mating habits of cheetahs will be taken more seriously by someone with an educational background in animal behavior or biology rather than someone trained in art. Conversely, an essay on the emotive techniques of Willem de Kooning would be taken more seriously if written by a trained artist rather than an engineer. Logos is probably the most commonly used because it poses logically relevant information, like statistics and data. It appeals to part of humans that want concrete evidence. Although the three can be used effectively separately, they can created a stronger argument when used in tandem. Their use also depends on the context and the audience. A room full of professors may react more strongly to the appropriate use of statistics than a tear-jerking story.
How can one apply C. Wright Mills' concept of the sociological imagination to explain why an individual suffers from joblessness?
Mills' sociological imagination urges sociologists to examine their "personal troubles" within a greater social context. Joblessness, for example, can be a product of not only one's personal problems, but also of their race, socioeconomic status, or gender. Studies have shown that employers are less likely to hire people of equal merit if their name sounds like it is from black or Hispanic origin. This suggests a pattern of racial bias in hiring practices. One's socioeconomic status also impacts the kind of job they can apply to. One of a lower economic status might not have the social networks to easily find employment opportunities. Those that they do find might not be high paying, have flexible hours, or good working conditions. Gender also poses its boundaries to finding a job because women are frequently discriminated against in the job market. They are often victims of sexual harassment in the workplace, receive lower pay, are denying maternal leave, or are just not hired because of gendered biases of employers. When all taken into account, it becomes more clear that a lower-class black woman faces more challenges in finding and maintaining a job than their wealthy, white, male counterparts.
Subject: AP Art History
Choose 1 typical religious architectural feature and explain how it reflects on the values and beliefs of that religion.
Stained-glass windows appear consistently in Catholic religious structures, like the Chartres Cathedral. Stained glass is a unique medium in that it is not completely opaque and allows sunlight to flow through and enter the church. Walking in the light that goes through a stained-glass window with depictions of holy people is symbolic of the Catholic commitment to "walk in the light of the Lord." Stained Glass windows are also always positioned at a much higher level than walking-height. This requires the viewer of the art to literally look up, towards the heavens, taking on a supplicant-like position under the holy people or iconography frequently featured in such windows.
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