Tutor profile: Jessica F.
What are some of the common assumptions and fallacies of the Argument Essay?
The Argument Essay contains assumptions or fallacies that include the assumption that correlate equals causation. Another assumption is that what works for one event must work for another event. The argument essay may also contain bad data (it may be falsified, the quantities may not be significant, and the math may be misleading).
A student handed in the following results section for a research study. Choose two different problems with this section and explain why this problem is wrong and fix this mistake. "A 2-way repeated measures ANOVA was performed to determine if athletic tasks and emotional arousal affect athletic performance differently. There was a significant main effect of Athletic Task on performance, F (1, 9) = 19.46, p < .05, µ2 = .68, such that participants putted, the mean was 79.23 and standard error was .66, with greater accuracy than they shot free throws, the mean was 84.77 and standard error was 95) . There was also a significant main effect of emotional arousal on performance, F(2,18) = 41.87, p < .05, µ2 = .82. Post-hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction revealed that performance was statistically significantly higher when participants had moderate (M = 87.00, SE = .85), than low (M = 78.65, SE = .74, p < .05), or high emotional arousal (M = 80.35, SE = .68, p < .05)."
The author did not follow APA writing standards in the first sentence when author wrote "2-way." This was a mistake because numbers less than ten should be fully written out. In order to correct the author should change "2-way" to "two-way." Likewise, the author did not report the results in the correct format. When reporting results, authors should use the correct symbols to represent what they have found. Instead of writing that "the probability is less than .05" the author should have written "p < .05." Likewise, they should change " the mean was 79.23 and standard error was .66" to "M = 79.23 and SE = .66).
Define positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Give 2 examples of each. What are 2 prenatal experiences associated with increased risk of schizophrenia? Briefly note the hypothesized mechanism by which each experience might increase risk.
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms refer to the presence of psychotic behaviors that are overt and are absent in non-clinical populations. Positive symptoms typically encompass behaviors that indicate one has lost touch with reality. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia refer to the absence or diminishment of healthy and normal behaviors. These symptoms reflect deficits of characteristics that are found in people without schizophrenia. Hallucinations (visual, auditory) and delusions are examples of positive symptoms. Avolitiona and anhedonia are examples of negative symptoms. Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder and there is evidence suggesting that prenatal experiences may increase the risk for this disorder. Exposure to infection during the second trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of developing this disorder. It is hypothesized that antibodies possibly interfere with neural development. Another example of a prenatal experience that is associated with increased risk is stressful maternal events during the late 1st trimester and early 2nd trimester. The stressful event is the hypothesized mechanism of increased risk in that stress can cause increased inflammation in body systems and interfere with normal neural and biological development.
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