Tutor profile: Leah N.
How can ethos, pathos, and logos be used in a piece of writing to more effectively engage your audience?
All three of these elements are very important in any piece of persuasive writing. When attempting to persuade an audience, the author must first establish ethos, assuring the audience that they are a credible source of information in relation to this topic. The author might do this by incorporating a personal anecdote which highlights their personal experience with the subject matter. When the author has a personal or professional connection to the subject matter, the audience will be more inclined to believe what they say and see them as a source of authority on that particular topic. Once ethos has been established, the author must continue by providing the evidence that will bring the audience to understand their perspective. This can be done by taking two different approaches: pathos, or the emotional approach, and logos, or the logical approach. Pathos is an appeal to the audience's emotions, and can be accomplished by incorporating anecdotes or other rhetoric that is designed to make the audience feel something. This is a very important element to incorporate into any piece of persuasive writing, because an emotional connection helps to convince the audience that they should care about the issue. However, emotional appeals alone will likely not be enough; the audience will also want facts and data. This is where logos comes in. An author should incorporate logos by providing hard evidence in favor of their point, such as well-sourced statistics, quotes, and facts. While pathos is meant to convince the audience to care about the issue, logos is meant to provide the audience with enough evidence to actually believe the author's argument. Any quality piece of persuasive writing will incorporate all three of these essential elements.
Subject: Music Theory
Explain the construction of a piece in sonata-allegro form.
A piece in sonata-allegro form contains three main sections: the exposition, the development, and the recapitulation. The exposition is the introduction to the piece. It begins with Theme 1, which is written in the tonic key (I). Theme 1 is often a parallel period, meaning that it contains two phrases that sound like a "question and answer" -- the first phrase ends on the dominant chord (V), and the second phrase ends on the tonic. After Theme 1 is some transitional material in which the music modulates to the dominant key. After the transition is Theme 2, which is fully written in the dominant key. This theme is often, though not always, more lyrical and melodious as compared to the material of Theme 1. After Theme 2, there is sometimes a brief closing passage which ends on an authentic cadence in the dominant key. The next section is the development. The defining characteristics of the development are that it explores many different key areas and uses pieces of material from the exposition ("developing" them by expanding on them and piecing them together). By the end of the development, the music has usually reached the submediant key (vi), which is often used because it provides opportunities to transition back to several different key areas. The material in vi continues until it has modulated back to I, and then the recapitulation begins. The recapitulation is structured in the same way as the exposition, However, this time, both themes appear in the tonic key, and the piece ends with an authentic cadence in the tonic.
The diagnosis of a psychological disorder often involves placing a certain label on a person. Explain both the potential benefits and the potential negative consequences of placing a label on a person's psychological symptoms or experience.
Perhaps the greatest benefit of labeling a psychological disorder is that it can allow the person to feel a sense of clarity in their psychological experience. If, for example, someone is experiencing the effects of major depressive disorder but has no way to explain these effects, it can be confusing and isolating. The person may blame themselves for the way they are feeling, thinking that they should be able to just "snap out of it." When they are told that what they are experiencing is a known disorder that is experienced by many other people, it may attach a sense of legitimacy to the symptoms and encourage the person that what they are feeling is not their fault, and that there is a way to get through it. Labels can help people make sense of their experience and even to connect with others who are going through the same thing. On the other hand, labels also have the potential to become incredibly stigmatizing. A diagnosis of a psychological disorder can greatly affect how a person is seen by others, and can cause other people to equate a diagnosis with someone's entire identity. Once a label like this is attached to a person, it can be very difficult to escape this label, and this can greatly affect how a person is treated and perceived.
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