Explain the pathophysiology of Essential Hypertension.
There are multiple factors that regulate blood pressure for adequate tissue perfusion. These factors include cardiac output, blood viscocity, neural stimulation, blood vessel elasticity, vascular calibre, circulating blood volume, hormones and other mediators. Over the course, essential hypertension can progress from occasional to established hypertension. After a long-standing asymptomatic period of persistent hypertension, there will be development of complication hypertension wherein there will be damages of various target organs such as kidneys, retina, brain, heart, aorta and other small arteries. This progression of essential hypertension begins with pre-hypertension in young individuals due to increased cardiac output, advances to early hypertension in middle-aged individuals, where there is prominently increased peripheral resistance, then to established and complicated hypertension in older individuals
Describe the composition of the plasma membrane.
The main components of the plasma membrane are : 1) Phospholipids 2) Proteins 3) Carbohydrates. Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules and are regularly organized in the membrane according to their polarity: two layers of phospholipids form the lipid bilayer, with the polar part of the phospholipids pointing to the exterior part of the layer and the non-polar phospholipid chains toward the interior. Proteins can be found embedded in the lipid bilayer. In addition, there are also some carbohydrates bound to proteins and to phospholipids in the outer surface of the membrane.
Describe the classification of joints in the human body.
Joints can be classified structurally or functionally. Functionally, joints are divided based on the ability of movement. 1) SYNARTHROSIS - permits no movement of the joint. e.g: Sutures of the skull 2) AMPHIARTHROSIS - permits slight movement of the joint. e.g: Intervertebral discs of the spine. 3) DIARTHROSES - permits full movement of the joint e.g: Elbow joint. Structurally, joints are classified based on the type of material composing the structure of the joint. 1) FIBROUS JOINTS - made up of collagen fibers e.g: Sutures of the skull 2) CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS - made up of band of cartilage that holds the bones together. e.g: Intervertebral discs of the spine. 3) SYNOVIAL JOINTS - (MOST ABUNDANT TYPE) contains a fluid-filled space between smooth cartilage pads at the end of articulating bones. e.g: Elbow joint.