Tutor profile: Angelina F.
Subject: Organic Chemistry
briefly explain how the acidity of an organic compound is related to its hybridization, then rank the sp, sp^2, and sp^3 in terms of pka and acidity.
Hybridization increases stabilization within a molecule. The more S characteristic a particular carbon has, the more closely its hydrogen(s) will be held. The more tightly the hydrogen is held, the more stable the molecule, which means it is less likely share its electron density, meaning it will be more acidic. sp (50% s character) will have the lowest pKa and be the most acidic sp^2 (33% s character) will have an intermediate pKa and acidity sp^3 (25% s character) will have the highest pKa and be the least acidic
Subject: Basic Chemistry
Name and define the three types of chemical bonds
covalent bonds: A bond that shares electrons between two atoms, forming a molecule polar covalent bonds: When the two atoms forming a covalent bond have different electronegativities which creates an unequal distribution of charge within the bond, resulting in a partially polar molecule Ionic bonds: A bond where one atom donates and electron to the other atom instead of sharing the electrons. This results in a positive cation and a negative anion, that stay together due to opposite charges attracting. Hydrogen bonds: Hydrogen bonds are sometimes considered a type of bonding, but they are actually an example of an intermolecular force.
Give a brief definition of what a zoonotic disease is, and explain how zoonosis spillover occurs.
A zoonotic disease is an infectious disease that originates in animals and then spreads to humans. Zoonosis spillover occurs when a disease crosses over from a non-human into a human. This can happen in several ways. A bacterial disease can mutate, which will give it the ability to infect humans who are in close contact with the animal already infected. Another cause of zoonosis spillover is when new contact is made between humans and infected animals due to increases in deforestation and habitat invasion. This exposes humans to diseases that we are susceptible to, but have never been previously infected by. Some zoonotic diseases can only be spread from non-human to human, while other have, or can mutate the ability to transmit through human to human contact
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