Tutor profile: Margaret H.
How does Herodotus show bias toward Persians in his book, The Histories?
A conflict of sources appears directly upon entering Book One of The Histories. Herodotus informs that “Persian commentators pin the blame [of the Greco-Persian War] for the clash on the Phoenicians” (I.3). He then elaborately narrates the story of Io and the kidnapping of various women. Upon finishing this account, Herodotus briefly mentions the version of events promoted by the Phoenicians, using as few as two sentences to describe their qualms regarding the Persian version of the story. The time spent describing the Persian view as opposed to the time spent on the Phoenician view suggests that Herodotus devotes no real responsibility to his promise regarding equality. Additionally, three major groups—the Scythians, the Greeks of Pontus, and the foreigners—debate the Scythian origin story. Herodotus explains each tale individually, but before telling the last story, he writes that it “seemed to [him] the most plausible” (IV.267). Although he pays attention to all sides of the story, there is a clear bias toward the foreigners.
Subject: World History
How did capitalists in early California exploit labor performed by minorities?
Labor in California, from the start, was reliant upon the subjugation and discrimination of marginalized populations, beginning with Native populations during Spanish colonial presence and continuing into present times with African American communities. Spanish arrival in Alta California manifested itself in a form of settler colonialism that rejected efforts to integrate Native populations already living in the territory. The first of these permanent forms of settlement occurred in missions, which relied on Natives for hard labor. This was a result of the Spanish casta system, which held labor as a defining separation of classes. Even today, it is of great historical debate whether the involvement of these populations was accomplished through coercion or violence. During Mexican secularization of missions, rancheros - a group that Natives were unable to become a part of - began to represent the skilled laboring class of the time. Similar restrictions of labor based on race were seen during American control of the region, although it turned to groups such as Chinese immigrants and Hawaiian peoples, in the form of legal restrictions on what forms of labor certain groups were able to engage in.
List and describe the difference between the three types of stem cells. What is each used for and what is an example of an ethic concern regarding stem cell research?
Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells which replenish dying and damaged somatic cells throughout the body. However, adult stem cells can only give rise to some types of cells. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells that are derived from the early-stage embryo. Induced pluripotent stem cells are somatic cells which have been reprogrammed to be able to give rise to any other type of cell. Modern ethic concerns with stem cell research center around embryonic stem cells because it involves the destruction of human embryos.
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