Tutor profile: Flora J.
Subject: Biomedical Science
Explain the difference between the ciliospinal reflex and the contralateral pupillary light reflex. Include discussion of autonomic nerve fibers in your answer.
In the contralateral pupillary light reflex, if you shine a light into one eye you not only elicit a constriction response of the pupil in the ipsilateral eye but in the contralateral eye as well. This is because constriction of the pupils is a parasympathetic innervation response. The parasympathetic innervation of the pupillary muscles are closely integrated. In the ciliospinal reflex, the response is ipsilateral pupil dilation when a stimulus is applied to the back of the neck. Dilation is a sympathetic nervous system response. The ipsilateral nature of this sympathetic reflex shows that there is not very close sympathetic nerve fiber integration between the two irises.
True or False: Plants make their own energy, so cellular respiration does not occur in plants and they do not have mitochondria.
False; plants do make their own energy (glucose) through the process of photosynthesis. However, they still need to convert this energy into ATP, our energy currency of the cell. Plants do this through the process of cellular respiration, just like heterotrophs do. The starting molecule is glucose (synthesized in photosynthesis), which undergoes substrate-level phosphorylation, and then oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Yes, plants have both chloroplast and mitochondria to carry out photosynthesis and cellular respiration to achieve the energy needs of the organism.
You are trying to figure out the rhesus factors of your mother, father, and your older brother. You are the youngest child. Your mother tells you that when she was pregnant with you, the doctors performed a test that showed that she had developed antibodies against the blood type of the fetus (you). Your mother knows she has blood type A rhesus negative. With this information, can you figure out the rhesus factors of the blood type of your father and two older siblings? Explain your answer.
In this scenario, since I am the youngest child and my mother with blood type A rhesus negative had developed antibodies against me while she was pregnant, I know that I must be rhesus positive. In order for my mother (A-) to have a rhesus positive child, I know that my father must be rhesus positive. For my mother to have developed antibodies in the first place, she must have had a previous pregnancy with a rhesus positive fetus because unlike anti A or anti B antibodies, rhesus negative individuals are not born with anti rhesus antibodies and must come into contact with rhesus positive blood to initiate an immune response to produce anti rhesus antibodies. Therefore, I know that my mother is rhesus negative, my father is rhesus positive, I am rhesus positive, and my older brother is also rhesus positive.
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