Tutor profile: Ethan B.
Subject: Music Theory
What are the parts of a fugue and how do they interact?
The fugue begins with a short melodic idea called the subject. The subject is stated in the tonic key and is the basis of the entire fugue. This subject is then met with the answer, a restatement of the subject in the dominant key in another voice. There are two types of answers, a real answer, which is a direct transposition of the subject or a tonal answer, which changes the subject slightly to better fit into the dominant key. While the second voice is giving the answer, the first voice (which presented the subject) continues on with the countersubject. The countersubject works as a pair with the subject. In a standard four-voice fugue, the third and fourth voices also present a statement of the subject and countersubject in different octaves. After the exposition, the fugue goes into a series of episodes. An episode is a freely composed portion of the fugue used to connect and transition between sections of the fugue. The middle part of the fugue takes the subject and countersubject and develops them. After this middle part concludes, the exposition is typically restated in the tonic key which then leads into the ending section of the fugue. This is usually marked by a stretto section and a coda. The stretto is a rapid restatement of the subject and the answer overlapping in all voices and finally, the fugue ends with the coda.
What are the defining features of the three periods of Beethoven's musical development?
Beethoven's (b. 1770) musical style can be broken up into 3 distinct periods, his first period extends from his birth to 1802. During this time Beethoven mastered the musical style and structures of the time. Beethoven grew up in Bonn where he began his training and then moved to Vienna at the recommendation of Joseph Haydn. During his time in Vienna, he achieved recognition from wealthy patrons. During this time Beethoven was applauded as an expert pianist and improviser. This period ends with Beethoven's writing of the Heiligenstadt Testament (1802), a letter written to his brothers. In this letter, Beethoven wrote about his developing deafness but also his drive to continue to write music. After the Heiligenstadt Testament, Beethoven's works become distinctively more ambitious and complex. This period was marked by an expansion of traditional forms rather than a rejection of them and a greater sense of introspection within the music. This style has labeled as the heroic style. The final period began in 1815 and is marked by an evolution of traditional styles and greater continuity between movements of compositions. This final period firmly marks the beginning of the Romantic era of music.
Subject: US History
What were three major pieces of legislation the British Empire implemented that directly lead to the Boston Tea Party and the reason they were implemented?
Due to the debt incurred by the French and Indian War, the British Parliament introduced two pieces of legislation to recuperate some cost of the war from the colonists and provide continued protection. The Stamp act (1765) put a tax on nearly every paper product sold in the colonies including playing cards and dice while the Townshend act (1767) put taxes on imports and also included clauses to crack down on smuggling and hiding of illegal goods. The majority of these taxes were repealed, all except for the tax on tea. To avoid this tax on tea, the colonists purchased tea from other countries or smugglers rather that the British East India Company. This lead to the passing of the Tea Act (1773) which gave the British East India Company a monopoly on tea in the colonies. In protest of this act, the colonists boycotted tea from the British East India Company affiliated ships. This lead to the governer of Boston ordering tea stuck in the harbor to be unloaded and paid for. At this provocation, the Sons of Liberty organized a group of men and raided three ships and dumped the entire compliment of tea into the harbor.
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