Tutor profile: Christian G.
Many students new to chemistry often have trouble explaining orbital hybridization. Please give a clear definition of Hybridization in your own words and state the Hybridization of the following molecules: CH4 SF6 C2H2
CH4 - sp3 SF6 - sp3d2 C2H2 - sp The definition could vary. I would look for a clear understanding of the concept. The student could say something like "All of the orbitals have the same energy, despite them being in different sublevels." or something of that nature.
Metabolic pathways compose a large amount of Biochemistry. One of the more popular pathways involves Glucagon and Insulin. Describe the role of both of these enzymes, where they are secreted or made, and how they interact with each other.
This is a big question. But we can give a simple answer by breaking up the question. The roles: Glucagon is secreted by a-cells in the Pancreas. Glucagon is used to increase blood concentrations of sugars. This is done through Gluconeogenesis, Glycogenolysis, as well as other processes such as Urrheagenesis. Insulin is secreted by b-cells in the pancreas and is involved in the uptake of sugars into cells. Insulin also increases carbohydrate metabolism inside the cells that uptakes sugars. Insulin directly inhibits Gluconeogenesis and promotes protein and lipid synthesis as well as Glycogen Synthesis. Patients in type 1 diabetes do not make Insulin, so their blood sugars are always high. Lastly, Glucagon and Insulin come into effect based on blood sugar. If the blood sugar is high, the body will make insulin to take that sugar out of the bloodstream. Inversely, if the blood sugar is too low, the body will make glucagon to put more sugar back into the bloodstream. This answer could be way more specific as well, depending on the intensity of the course.
Subject: Basic Chemistry
While we may have been raised using one definition of an Acid, multiple definitions actually exist. This applies to Bases as well. Please give the definitions of the following: Arrhenius Bases and Acids Bronsted Lowry Bases and Acids. Lewis Bases and Acids.
Arrhenius bases and acids are identified by how they dissociate in water. If they form H+ or -OH, then they are Acids and Bases respectively. Bronsted Lowery Bases and Acids are identified by whether or not they donate a proton or accept a proton. Acids donate protons, while Bases accept Protons. Lewis Bases and Acids are identified by whether or not they are electron acceptors or donators. Lewis Acids are found to accept Electrons while Lewis Bases are found to donate electrons. Using these definitions we can see whether a substance may or may not be called an acid or a base is dependent on which definition is used.
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