Tutor profile: Kanwal S.
Annotate this article: Vogel, D. L., Heimerdinger-Edwards, S. R., Hammer, J. H., & Hubbard, A. (2011). "Boys Don't Cry": Examination of the Links between Endorsement of Masculine Norms, Self-Stigma, and Help-Seeking Attitudes for Men from Diverse Backgrounds. Journal Of Counseling Psychology, 58(3), 368-382. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21639615
The purpose of this research is to understand the relationship between gender norms and attitudes towards seeking counseling as it relates to men of all different cultures and sexual orientation (As this research focuses on men, it studies the gender norm of the male and how men ought to be “stoic and controlled” as well as exploring the “boys don’t cry” label). In previous research, the relationship between society’s expectations of one’s gender and attitudes towards seeking out help had been measured, however, only within the specific group of heterosexual European males. This study seeks to understand if that relationship between gender norms and attitudes towards help-seeking is influenced by self-stigma as well as if that relationship plays out within the diverse groups of race/ethnicity and sexual orientation (Vogel, Heimerdinger-Edwards, Hammer, Hubbard, 2011). - H1 investigated the following: The relationship between self-stigma and attitudes will be stronger (Vogel et al., 2011) - Findings for H1 show that for the first time, self-stigma mediates masculinity. The initial measurement model that was created intended that masculinity --> self-stigma --> attitudes, meaning masculinity directly affects self-stigma which directly affects attitudes toward professional help-seeking. However, the reverse became true within this study and instead, self-stigma determines masculinity. (Vogel et al., 2011)
Give the following sentence a parallel structure: Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle.
Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle.
Explain the cognitive dissonance theory.
Cognitive dissonance theory is a communication theory dealing with the discomfort the mind feels when processing conflicting ideas. This discomfort is affected by three different factors: how relevant the subject is to us, how solid the ideas are and how capable our mind is to choose or explain the ideas. Let's use an example. If you are a driver, you are probably used to seeing a red stop sign at an intersection and stopping your car. If one day you were to see a blue stop sign as opposed to the usual red stop sign, what would you do? You are faced with one of two choices - stopping or going. You may feel discomfort or dissonance at having to decide between what you know is right and what you think could also be right. Being tested with the two conflicting ideas or choices is what creates dissonance!
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