Tutor profile: Emily P.
Subject: Study Skills
How can I study better and get better grades?
1. Organization is key. Have folders to keep all your necessary assignments. If your classes are online, make digital folders. Have a planner and use it. I cannot stress this enough. Productivity increases when you have a good planner. Planners can be digital or physical or both. I use both a physical (Panda planner) and a digital planner (Google Calander). Find what is best for you and set aside time each day to use it. 2. Study in smaller chunks. Instead of studying a lot all at one study a little bit in smaller chunks of time (i.e. 20 - 30 mins with 5 - 10 min breaks). During this time, do nothing but homework and focus on it. You can look at your phone or email during your break. This is a proven method to increase focus and productivity. 3. Take clear and careful notes. Taking notes in class is important. It helps you to pay attention to what the teacher or professor is saying and you are able to reflect back later. Focus on what the teacher is saying and not on powerpoints that you may have access to later. If you have a class that has required readings, take notes on these. It's helpful in understanding content and increasing focus while reading. If your teacher has PowerPoint slides you could print out and follow along with before class, do this! (Or you can take notes on a laptop/tablet on the PowerPoint) 4. Make digital study guides for yourself to help you to go over material for tests. I say digital so you don't lose them in the future and you can then use them to help study for finals or other cumulative exams. If you use something like Google Docs you can also make it collaborative and share it with classmates and help each other make a study guide! It's studying together but in a digital age. These are my top four tips. If you would like more tips, just let me know!
Can you explain Edward Tolman's most famous experiment on latent learning and the concept of latent learning?
Latent learning is learning that has not been translated into a behavior. To try to prove this idea, Tolman set up an experiment with three different groups of rats and had them complete a maze. One group of rats was regularly rewarded with food when they completed the maze. One group was not given a food reward (there was the small reward of getting out of the maze). The last group was not given a food reward until day 11 of the experiment. In the end, the group that had been given the food on day 11 ended up performing the best overall. This shows latent learning. The "not reward until day 11" group was forming their cognitive map of the maze but took their time because there was no motivation for them to perform. Once this motivation was introduced the motivation was there and performance increased.
What are the main differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic cells: - membrane-bound organelles (i.e. mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), etc.) - a nucleus - found in plants/animals/fungi/etc. (everything except bacteria & archaea) - several linear chromosomes - ribosomes can be bound to organelles (sometimes in the cytoplasm - these are free ribosomes, some on ER, some on the nuclear membrane) - usually, reproduce sexually (expectations = some fungi and protists) Prokaryotic cells: - no membrane-bound organelles - no nucleus, free-floating DNA - found in bacteria/archaea - most often contain only one circular chromosome - free ribosomes only - reproduce asexually
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