Tutor profile: Spencer J.
Subject: Religious Studies
Have Muslims and Christians always fought each other?
Today we are woefully aware of societies that have erupted with religious conflict. We specifically often hear about strife between Muslims and Christians. There have been terrible religious civil wars in places like the Balkans or the Sudan. We hear about the persecution of Christians in Muslim countries and Muslims in Christian countries. Have Christians and Muslims always been at odds? No! Mohammed, the founder of Islam, had very high opinions of the Christians that he knew, referring to them (and Jews) as fellow "people of the book." Most early Muslim civilizations were very tolerant of Christianity. Christian civilizations in Europe were less friendly toward Muslims. However, Muslims and Christians have lived together peacefully in many parts of the world. In the modern period, new forms of fundamentalism and nationalism have sprung up around the world and have led to religious conflicts that have torn apart societies that used to be more peaceful and tolerant.
Subject: World History
How did did industrial revolution change social relationships around the world?
The industrial revolution was, at first, a technological transformation that took place in Europe and North America. It refers to the shift from an era in which most economies were built upon a combination of agriculture and what might be called "trade" work. But advances in technology led to these parts of the economy being increasingly dominated by machines that made these activities more automated. People moved toward the cities where factories performed the services that people used to do locally. This economic transformation led to social transformation that has taken place all over the world that has developed its technology and industry. For one, while most work used to be centered around the home, industrial societies require people to leave home to go to work. In many societies, men have been the primary ones going out to work, with women left at home to raise children and care for the home. However, feminist movements have encouraged women to join the work force as well. Scholars debate whether countries that industrialize will all follow the same social patterns, or whether these transitions were unique to the Western world.
Subject: European History
How did European colonists justify colonizing the Americas?
The justifications for colonization were many--some were economic, others political. But one of the the most pervasive justifications was religion. European explorers and political leaders believed they had an imperative to spread Christianity to the peoples they discovered living in the so-called "New World." Some colonizing empires spread Christianity by force, others used subtler economic and political incentives, while others sincerely acted out of what they thought was their moral imperative to share what they believed to be true with others.
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