Tutor profile: Mara N.
Compare and contrast expectancy theory and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation.
Expectancy theory explains human behavior in regards to goals, choices, and expectation that goals will be reached. Intrinsic/ extrinsic motivation are motivational reasons for completing a task, goal, etc. In the expectancy theory, there are three main concepts; expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. Each of these concepts provide someone reasons to choose one option or choice over the others. This is similar to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation because they each give someone the motivation to make a decision on something. The first concept of the expectancy theory, expectancy, describes the likelihood that is someone attempts to do better, they most likely will do better. This is like intrinsic/extrinsic motivation because if someone wants to complete a goal to feel good or receive something they will most likely get the goal accomplished. When someone is motivated to do something, they will expect to be successful at it. This is similar to the instrumentality concept as well because if there is a likelihood that something good will happen if effort is increased then someone with intrinsic/extrinsic motivation will put more effort in to get that “good” result. The last concept, valence, especially is related to the two types of motivation because the valence of something (the value) will be both intrinsic and extrinsic to the induvial. While expectancy theory and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation have comparisons, they are also very different from one another. Expectancy theory explains behavior in regard to accomplishing goals, choices, etc., but intrinsic and extrinsic motivation just encourage someone to do a behavior in regard to receiving a materialistic thing or feeling. They are similar in how they encourage someone to obtain or reach something they want, but they differ in how they go about being successful with that.
Subject: Gender Studies
How have societal views and norms contributed to violence against women?
Historically speaking, violence against women use to be an acceptable act of punishment. For example, 2,000 years ago, Roman law gave a man life and death authority over his wife (Origins of Violence Against Women). In the 11th and 12th century England’s culture was dictated by patriarchy and as a result women were subordinated and could be treated as property by their husband’s (Fox 2002). These historical perspectives and policies represent the objectified views of women during that time and the acceptance of abuse towards them. Fortunately, as the decades have gone by violence against women has only become less acceptable. Within the last twenty years DV legislation has been proposed and passed in order to protect victims. Two momentous pieces of legislation in the United States were the 1984 Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA) and the 1994 Violence Against Women Act (VAWA). (FVPSA) provided DV victims shelters and resources for them and their children and VAWA intended to improve criminal justice and community-based responses to DV, dating violence, sexual assault and stalking in the United States. These two acts have changed the outlook for many victims as they now have access to services and professionals that understand their victimization. (Laws on Violence against Women).
Subject: Criminal Justice
Is it appropriate for juveniles to be sentenced to life without parole?
No, it is not appropriate for juveniles to be sentenced to life without parole. Due to the fact that juveniles' brains are still developing, they should be able to demonstrate maturity and reform through parole rather than immediate imprisonment. Although they have once committed a heinous crime, give them the opportunity to change rather than subjecting them to a life of recidivism. Due to the lack of brain development during the time of the crime, they should be given a chance to show they’re capable of rejoining society.
needs and Mara will reply soon.