Tutor profile: Kiran R.
Subject: Health and Medicine
How can breaking bad news be achieved in the most suitable and sensible manner?
"Breaking bad news" is essentially the process of disclosing unfavorable information to a patient or his/her family by a healthcare professional (HCP). It is one of the hardest things for HCPs to do, as it has to be done as sensitively as possible while still giving the other party all the information required. A model known as the SPIKES model has been developed as a method of structuring this, to make sure HCPs are able to deliver the information in an empathetic yet comprehensive manner. S is for Setting - this should ideally be a comfortable, quiet and private room. Other considerations include the provision of tissues in the room, chairs to be seated on, and asking the patient/family member if they would like anyone else with them. P is for Perception - this is the discussion of events leading up till now and establishing the other party's knowledge so far of the situation. This makes sure that no assumptions about previous knowledge are made, and that news isn't sprung on the other party inappropriately. I is for Invitation - this is to set the scene for the upcoming bad news and to ask the other party if they would like to discuss the news (test results, diagnosis, etc) K is for Knowledge - this is to make sure information is delivered in sizeable chunks, and that you regularly check for understanding. E is for Emotions and Empathy - it is important to recognize, acknowledge, and respond to emotions with acceptance, empathy, and concern. This is a very difficult time for the patient and family, so it is important to be sensitive to this. S is for Strategy and Summary - it is important to form a plan of action with the other party so they know how the situation will move forward. It is also important to summarise the information and ask if they would like anything to be clarified, to make sure you have not missed anything important.
Subject: College Admissions
What is the purpose of college essays?
College essays are a way for students to promote themselves in a way that allows the university admissions personnel to view their experiences and reflection on these. While this seems quite straightforward, the real purpose of the essay is to provide the admissions personnel with a snapshot of ones personality, qualities, strengths and thought processes. It is unique to every student, but its basic purpose is the same.
How does meiosis help achieve genetic recombination?
Meiosis is the process by which gametes are formed, which are the sperm in men and the ova or eggs in a female. It involves 2 parts, which together result in the division of one diploid cell containing the full set of chromosomes, into 4 haploid cells, each of which contain half a set of chromosomes. Two processes within meiosis allow for genetic recombination, which allows the characteristics of the gamete to be different from the parent cell - this means a the child formed from the gamete will have different combinations of characteristics from his/her parent. The first of these processes is "crossing over" which occurs as part of prophase 1. This is the exchange of genetic material between two homologous chromosomes non-sister chromatids. It occurs because the homologoes chromosomes chromatics have the same genes in the same loci, but different alleles (forms of the gene). Therefore, crossing over allows the formation of recombinant chromatids, which have new combinations of alleles for the gametes. The second of these processes is "independent assortment" during metaphase 1. This essentially occurs because the orientation of each pair of homologous chromosomes at the center of the cell is random. This leads to new combinations of traits because alleles of genes on different chromosomes are inherited independently of each other and randomly assorted into the gametes formed.
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