In Beethoven's Piano Sonata in C major - "Waldstein", how is the Sonata Principle at first avoided and then fulfilled?
In the recapitulation the theme from the second tonal area is written in VI instead of in I. This is rectified in the Coda where the theme from the second tonal area appears briefly in I.
How many beats is a quarter note worth in 6/8 meter?
In 6/8 meter the 8th note gets the beat. A quarter note is two 8th notes, so it occupies two beats.
Outside of the realm of writing for the ACT or another standardized test, where is it appropriate to put the thesis of your paper?
Depending on the type of essay, be it a definition essay or a compare/contrast essay, you can actually put the thesis of your paper wherever you want. It's a common misconception that a good paper needs to have five paragraphs with the thesis at the end of the first paragraph.