Tutor profile: Justin E.
Subject: Health and Medicine
Sickle-cell anemia is a common disease among certain populations within the United States leading to difficult health problems throughout life. Meanwhile, other individuals will only have sickle-cell trait and live relatively normal lives. Using knowledge of punnet squares, what is the inheritance pattern of sickle-cell anemia?
Sickle-cell anemia is an autosomal dominant disease, meaning alleles will be passed down to every decedent. However, if individuals have one parent without the disease, the resulting offspring will have one dominant trait and one recessive trait, leading to the condition known as sickle-cell trait.
Epinephrine, a commonly administered medication for hypoxic allergic reactions, is used to increase blood pressure in a hospital setting. How is it possible for the medication to have effects at these different levels and for different reasons?
Epinephrine belongs to a family of medications known as alpha and beta agonists. The cross reactivity epinephrine shows towards both of these receptors means that it can simultaneously impact the alpha receptors in the blood vessels, leading to constriction of the blood vessel, while also acting on beta receptors in the bronchial tree, leading to relaxation of the smooth muscle and allowing air to pass to the lungs.
The rotator cuff is colloquial for a collection of muscles in the shoulder. What are these muscles and what is the consequence of injury to these muscles?
The 4 muscles that comprise the rotator cuff are as follows: Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. This is commonly remembered by the mnemonic SITS. Tearing the muscles can lead to inability to raise the arm above the shoulder in addition to fine tuned movements of the glenohumeral joint.
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