Tutor profile: Andra N.
Subject: Biomedical Science
What are the potential applications of 3D cell culture? How does this relate to pharmaceutical drug safety testing?
2D cell monolayers are disadvantaged in their capacity to model how tissues in the body will react to drug exposure as, often, cells in monolayers do not differentiate fully into the cell type they would be in the body nor do they have key 3D cell-to-cell physical interactions as they would normally. 3D cell cultures, such a spheroids or organs on a chip, mimic these 3D cellular arrangements making them more mimetic of the dynamic environment the drug will be exist within. Pharmaceutical companies are especially interested in hepatocyte cell cultures in order to test for liver toxicity the drug might cause, a key factor in determining the safety of the drug. Organs on a chip may allow pharmaceutical companies to even bypass certain mammalian animal testing on their way to drug approval.
What is quorum sensing and with which species can it be observed?
Quorum sensing refers to how groups of organisms make decisions based on signals given by a subset of the group! This can range all the way from mammals such as meerkats to bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
What is the boson associated with the electromagnetic force?
The photon! This is one example of varying models for understanding something as ubiquitous in our lives as light! Different questions about light force us to use different theoretical models to understand how it might behave-- understanding the force behind light and the boson associated with it is one such way to understand light.
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