Tutor profile: Molly C.
How do gender roles in society impact gender stratification in the work force?
Despite changing expectations for marriage traditional gender roles continue in most American households such as women cooking and doing laundry while men make repairs and do yard work. Despite our society moving towards more openness in regard to gender roles we still see the same things continue. Women are still looked at as the more caring of the two sexes and are still predominate in jobs like education and nursing because of that perception. For example elementary school teachers are overwhelmingly women. Men who would like to teach younger children have a negative perception they must overcome because of the common perception of pedophilia with men who like being small children. Women who would like to join occupations that are traditionally male have a difficult time as well. Firefighters for instance are almost exclusively men. Why? Because women are viewed as not strong enough to carry out that work but any man of any size would not have to prove himself the way a woman would. There are a multitude of examples that could be used to illustrate this point that despite conscious efforts of people to change their ideas there is still an unconscious bias towards people in certain occupations in our society.
Subject: World History
How was Social Darwinism used to justify 19th century imperialism?
Social Darwinism is the idea of natural selection applied to societies, that only the fittest societies survive. This is applied by countries like Great Britain in the 19th century to justify imperialism especially in Africa. The British saw it as their duty to civilize the uncivilized 'lesser' societies of Africa. Because the societies in places like Africa and Southeast Asia were not as developed than those Western European countries, they were seen as weak. So when the Western European countries imperialize them they equate that as survival of the fittest. If those countries had been fit to survive then they would have. The events that transpire because of imperialism lead them to believe this. Societies like Ethiopia and Japan are able to successfully resist imperialism by modernizing at least if not more their military to fight off the Europeans. So from the European perspective that only adds to the idea of Social Darwinism because those societies were clearly fit enough to survive and those that do not are nourishment for the more fit countries.
Subject: East Asian History
How does the religious background of Asian countries impact their social structure?
For most of human history religion has played a strict role in establishing and maintain social structures across lands and people. From those leaders who claim they were descended from gods to the humble farmer who makes offerings to celestial beings for a good harvest. Many of the Asian religious, such as Confucianism, Buddhism, and Hinduism emphasize a status quo which allows for a strict social structure in countries like China, Japan, and India. In Confucianism the belief "Chung" emphasizes a loyalty to the state so questioning the government in anyway would break that tenant and thus go against the religion. In both Hinduism and Buddhism the idea of reincarnation helps maintain the status quo because it emphasizes the idea that whatever lot in life a person has been given they must do their duty in that position well and fully in order to transcend to a higher level in their next life. These faith based social constraints keep people in their place and maintain stability in the society as a whole. It is through these restrictions that these countries are able to have and maintain such strict social structures. Japan for example had a social structure with the Emperor on top, daimyo, samurai, artisans, peasants, and merchants at the bottom. The merchants despite being somewhat wealthy were seen as socially inferior since they did not produce anything and therefore did not really contribute to the betterment of society. All the other social classes were providing something to the whole of society through goods and services therefore fulfilling their positions. We can still see this in those societies today despite the western influence of individualism. In Japan it is considered rude to tip because the workers strive to do their best no matter the circumstances because it is their job and their duty.
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