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Gary M.
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Chemistry
TutorMe
Question:

Briefly explain the uses and functionality of carbon dating and its potential limits.

Gary M.
Answer:

Carbon dating is a method used to date materials based on their carbon content. As organisms grow and develop, they constantly replenish their carbon-14 isotope supplies. When organisms reach the end of their life cycle and die, they are no longer able to regain carbon-14, and as time passes this isotope decays into the more stable carbon-12. With modern instruments, we are able to use this ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 as a reference for aging. Since carbon has a relatively short half-life, we are only able to accurately date materials about 50,000 years old and earlier. If the substance is older than this range, a different element and isotope must be used.

Biology
TutorMe
Question:

Explain one idea on how life could have originated from inorganic compounds and substances, such as those found on primordial Earth. Explain any shortcomings to this hypothesis/theory.

Gary M.
Answer:

The Miller and Urey experiment is a prime example of how life could have originated from inorganic compounds. In this experiment, many common inorganic compounds were placed in a closed environment, and were subjugated to heat and shock, as well as other factors that are thought to have been present during Earth's early stages. At the end of the experiment, several organic molecules were created, including essential amino acids. This gives strong evidence to the idea that life could have originated from inorganic compounds. If these compounds, as well as a form of genetic material, had floated into a naturally forming phospholipid bilayer, the precursor for life would have formed. The main shortcoming of this idea is that the concentration of these compounds would likely not have been high enough in the "primordial soup" (ocean) to come into contact with each other.

Physics
TutorMe
Question:

What happens if voltage is increased in a circuit but resistance is kept constant?

Gary M.
Answer:

Ohm's Law states that Voltage= Current X Resistance, so if voltage is increased at constant resistance, current must also increase.

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