Tutor profile: Elena B.
How do you conjugate an "ar" verb?
Verbs in Spanish either end with "ar", "er," or "ir." Most verbs are "regular" and follow a specific set of rules, however, you should be aware that some verbs are a bit rebellious and do not follow the rules! Today we will discuss regular "ar" verbs. Before we can discuss "ar" verbs, we need to review subject pronouns. A subject pronoun takes the place of a noun. Below is a list of subject pronuns. Some are singular (refer to a single subject); some are plural (refer to more than one subject) I You He/She/It We You (all) They Which ones are singular? Which ones are plural? We use pronouns in our native language every day without thinking twice! For example, if you want to tell a story about how you spent the day with your friend Katie, you might start the story with "Katie and I went to the movies." Very quickly the words "Katie and I" become replaced by the subject pronoun "we." "We" takes the place of "Katie and I" and streamlines the wording of your story. Here's a (very repetitive) story about Felix the cat: Felix ate his food. Felix climbed the tree. Felix licked himself. Felix took a nap. What subject pronoun best replaces the noun "Felix?" He! In Spanish, every subject pronoun has it's own specific verb ending. That means that you can omit the subject pronoun altogether in your speech (because it's implied by the verb ending). This is different from English, where different subject pronouns often have the same verb conjugations. Example: Verb : hear I hear You hear He/She/It hears We hear You (all) hear They hear In English, nearly all subject pronouns have the same verb conjugations so eliminating the subject pronouns would make communicating very difficult and confusing. But in Spanish, subject pronouns have unique verb endings, so you can skip the subject pronoun (once it's clear who/what you are talking about). Below are the verb endings for regular "ar" Spanish verbs. (Hint: the order corresponds with the list of subject pronouns above): o as a amos ais an To form the present tense of an "ar" verb: Step 1: Take the infinitive verb (aka unconjugated verb) Step 2: Eliminate the letters "ar" Step 3: Add the corresponding verb ending Example: Verb: hablar (to talk, speak) hablar - ar + o = hablo hablar - ar + as = hablas hablar - ar + a = habla hablar - ar + amos = hablamos hablar - ar + = hablais hablar - ar + an = hablan
How do you solve for x or any other variable?
To solve for x (or any other variable), you must isolate x (ie get x by itself). X represents an unknown value also called a "variable," which is often represented by a letter. Our job is to figure out what the unknown value is! Example: 5x + 3x + 3 = 19 Step 1: Combine like terms. Combine all values with "x" in them. In this example, add 5x + 3x to get 8x. Step 2 Re-write the equation. 8x + 3 = 19 An equation means all terms on the left side of the equal sign are equal in value to all terms on the right side of the equal sign. Our job is to keep the equation balanced. What we do to one side, we must do to the other side. Step 3 Continue to isolate x. We have a +3 on the same side of the equation as 8x. We need to move it over to the right side of the equation, to the right side of the equal sign. By doing the opposite action as +3, we can move it. The opposite of +3 is -3. We -3 from both sides of the equation. 8x + 3 = 19 -3 -3 When we -3 on the left side, it is cancelled out (3 - 3 = 0). When we -3 from the right side it equals 16 (19 - 3 = 16). Step 4 Re-write the equation. 8x = 16 Step 5 We are almost there (we've almost gotten x by itself). The only thing standing in the way of our dreams is the number 8! The number 8 is the co-efficient, a number multiplied by a variable (in this example, x is the variable). What is the opposite of multiplying by 8? Dividing by 8! Reminder: what we do to one side of the equation, we must do to the other: 8x = 16 /8 /8 x = 16/8 x = 2 That's it! We figured out x = 2. Any good mathematician would CHECK THEIR WORK. The way to check your work is to "plug" 2 (the value of x) back into our original equation: 5x + 3x + 3 = 19 5(2) + 3(2) + 3 = 19 10 + 6 + 3 = 19 19 = 19
Subject: English as a Second Language
What is the present progressive form of a verb? How do you form it and use it?
The present progressive is used to talk about actions happening in the now or actions that will happen in the future. It's made by placing the conjugated verb "to be" in front of the -ing form (also called the present participle) of another verb, usually an action verb. Present Progressive = Conjugated "to be" verb + -ing form of verb Step 1: Conjugate the verb "to be" according to the subject (the who or the what) doing the action. The verb "to be" is conjugated as follows: I am You are He/She/It is We are You (all) are They are The last word is the verb "to be;" the first word(s) is/are the subject pronouns. The second part of the present progressive is formed by taking the infinitive (unconjugated verb) and adding -ing. walk + ing = walking buy + ing = buying eat + ing = eating There are, however, some spelling exceptions! For example, if the infinitive of the verb ends in a single letter "e," this letter is eliminated before adding -ing. hike - e + ing + liking eliminate - e + ing = eliminating bite - e + ing = biting This rule doesn't apply to a double letter e. Example: see + ing = seeing Also, if the verb ends in "ie," these letters are changed to a "y" before adding -ing. Example: lie - ie + ing = lying tie - ie + ing = tying There are a couple of other rules as well, and we will practice those in time! :)
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