Tutor profile: Bailee D.
Subject: Physics (Waves and Optics)
What are the main types of optics, and why are they important to calculate and understand?
The four most studied optics within basic physics are concave mirrors, convex mirrors, converging lenses, and diverging lenses. These optics are important in physics because they exist everywhere, and allow for a better understanding on how cameras, mirrors, microscopes, and eye glasses work. By understanding how the distance of the object and the focal point of the specific optic ultimately changes the image, there will be a better understanding of how all of these real-world examples work as well.
Compare and contrast a plant cell and an animal cell, and why is it important to understand the difference?
Both plant and animal cells are eukaryotic, contain a nucleus, and contain membrane-bound organelles. However, plant cells and animal cells differ within their types of organelles, energy systems, and exterior layers. Animal cells do not have a cell wall, while plant cells do have cell walls that allow them to maintain a fixed shape and structure. To use and produce energy, plant cells rely on photosynthesis by processing light photons primarily within chloroplasts with the use of carbon dioxide, ultimately creating oxygen as a byproduct. Animal cells heavily rely on carbohydrates and fats to produce energy in the mitochondria of their cells with the intake of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide as a byproduct. Lastly, plant cells have one large vacuole of water that makes up most of the cell volume, while animal cells maintain many small vacuoles or vesicles. It is important to understand the difference between the types of cell because this allows for better understanding on how these cells function within their environment, and why they maintain the structures that they possess.
Why is it important to study Anatomy & Physiology? How does a muscle contract?
Anatomy is the study of the human body and physiology is the study of the functions of the structures within the human body. These subjects go hand in hand by understanding the importance of structure and function. Studying Anatomy & Physiology is important in any health-related field, because by understanding each system within the body (which include the integumentary, endocrine, lymphatic, cardiovascular, muscular, skeletal, digestive, urinary, reproductive, nervous, and respiratory systems), one can develop the skills necessary to take the next steps toward in that health-related field. Anatomy & Physiology is the basis of any medical field. For example, if you want to become CPR certified, it is important to understand the position of the lungs for inflation, the location of the carotid and radial arteries to check someone's pulse, the location of the xiphoid process for hand positioning, and the way the cardio-respiratory system works as a whole. Muscle contraction is a chemical, electrical, and mechanical process: First, nerve secretes acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Then acetylcholine diffuses across the junction, then it binds to specific receptors on the muscle cell. The binding of acetylcholine initiates an electrical impulse that travels down the T tubules into the interior of the cell. When the impulse reached the sarcoplasmic reticulum, it releases the calcium. The calcium binds to troponin, causing it to change shape and expose the active sites on the actin. The myosin heads will attach to the actin binding site, then pull the actin toward the center of the sarcomere, causing it to shorten. The myosin heads will then use the hydrolyzation ATP release from the active site. To relax, there will be no more binding of acetylcholine, causing no electrical impulse traveling through the T-tubules. This will then stop the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, causing the troponin to cover the active sites on the binding sites. Therefore, the myosin heads can’t bind and pull any longer.
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