Tutor profile: Clare S.
What is the role of the conclusion in an essay?
After giving support for your thesis throughout your body paragraphs, your reader should be convinced of your argument by the end of your essay. Therefore, your conclusion is an opportunity to explain the significance of your essay--not a place for summarizing your entire paper. Keep in mind that your reader has already read your argument and is looking to understand what to do with the information. What do you want your reader to remember from your essay, and how should they apply your argument in the future? For example, if I wrote on the importance of increasing education accessibility, I could use my conclusion to outline potential policy changes. Alternatively, if I wrote on Atticus Finch in "To Kill a Mockingbird," my conclusion could be on criminal representation in the modern era. In both of these examples, my conclusion acted as a natural "next step" for my arguments by relating my ideas to a broader significance. The conclusion ultimately adds to your essay by highlighting the importance of your perspective on your respective topic.
Subject: Political Science
What is Olsen's metaphor of the roving and stationary bandit, and how does it help explain the formation of the state?
Olsen describes a roving bandit as an actor that unpredictably extracts in a way that is detrimental to long-term progress because they rob local populations of everything. This happens because they have short time horizons, meaning that they do not have a strong incentive to invest in the future of the population. However, a stationary bandit earns more than a roving bandit over time because they extract a part of a population's income in predictable amounts. Unlike a roving bandit, a stationary bandit has a longer time horizon so they have an incentive to provide goods like security to extract a revenue-maximizing amount. To Olsen, the state is a stationary bandit because it extracts in exchange for protection and services.
Subject: Comparative Government and Politics
How does the Latin American tax system differ from that of the United States?
Latin American states often rely on VAT taxes, which charge individuals at every stage of production. This is because a large percentage of the population works informally, and the state cannot accurately capture wealth for an expansive income tax. Additionally, weak property rights have created a land informality problem and a resulting inability to tax property. Because of these issues relating to state capacity, the state forces the tax burden on impoverished individuals through sales taxes. Therefore, unlike the progressive tax system of the United States, Latin American states use regressive sales taxes, leading to visible and drastic wealth inequalities.
needs and Clare will reply soon.