Tutor profile: Jelena S.
Subject: European History
Creation of the Byzantine Basileus: Constantine the Great - what is the idea of caesaropapism?
The idea of Caesaropapism on unification (one state - one church) under the patronage of God's messenger on Earth is based on two principles. First, on the doctrine of one God who is the creator and steward of all creation. The Deity presents himself as the "eternal mind" of the cosmos - the Logos, characterized as a celestial "general" who maintains the balance of the universe, just as the supreme commander maintains order on the battlefield. Secondly, the dual tradition - the Old Testament, which said that God uses human advocates in the name of his higher goals and the St Paul teaching - the deity appoints rulers to punish evil and bring order to society. This interpretation helped Constantine in the implementation of political ideas. He accepts the idea that the church is the ultimate "fountain of truth, the abode of faith and the temple of God".
Subject: Art History
Explain the terms “Mannerism” and “Maniera”
Mannerism gives the direction of art of the XVI century. In itself, it is one of the most controversial directions of the art of the New Age. The term mannerism is used for a spiritual phenomenon in its final phase, where there is a deviation from what we call key to this phenomenon. These principles are abandoned in order to create a kind of manner of this "great art". Only the name and the idea of manners have existed in the court literature of French since the 13th century, and in the Italian language since the 14th century. The term "Mannerism" implies not only the phenomenon of the High Manner of the middle of the 16th century but also the period of previous decades as well as the following period, which are visually much more connected with the classical style of the High Renaissance or Baroque. The end of the experimental phase is marked by the achievement of Manier: the hallmark of the maturation of the new style is the assignment of the main role to the property of "gracia", as well as the emphasis on the function of the work of art as an ornament.
Subject: AP Art History
Victory on the Milvian Bridge in Rome (312 AD) enabled Constantine the Great to take the position of Emperor of the Roman Empire. However, his attitude towards the Caput Mundi was specific. Describe at least both how and why Constantine the Great used architecture in communication with two completely different target groups Romans and Christians that inhabited the capital of the empire.
Victory on the Milvian Bridge in Rome (312 AD) Constantine the Great, from an ideological point of view, developed Rome from an imperial to a papal centre of the world, thus enabling the gradual conversion of Europe from paganism to Christianity. The use of seemingly different architectural language in communication with the two groups enabled Constantine the Great to consolidate himself and the idea of Caesaropapism in the empire. Constantine's comprehensive architectural project moved in two directions: 1. in the old city centre - within the city walls (which was "very sensitive ground") he presented himself as the Roman Emperor with all the visual features that referred to the Roman state - Two significant characteristics represent Constantine's relationship to the centre of Rome: the use of ceremonies and architectural influence. Both moments have the role of publicly presenting his imperial personality in all its divine greatness. His triumphant entry into the centre of Rome, after the victory over Maxentius, was a very well thought out Adventus. The construction of the Triumphal Arch in 315 was a celebration of the memory of this event. The triumphal arch represents a multi-layered and multi-significant monument of the extensive program of glorification of Constantine's policy and power. 2. Outside the city walls, as part of a well-planned policy, Constantine and his family erected their Christian buildings on their estates. This architectural program, in which he surrounded the old core with Christian buildings, aimed to draw the attention of travellers to Rome and beyond to the greatness of the new faith, its patron, God's vicegerent on Earth, but also to the newly established type of rule - one ruler - one God.
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