How did the enlightenment in Europe impact the development of US government?
The enlightenment period questioned the authority of divine right of king to rule and sought to conceive alternative forms of government to prevent tyranny. The works of Jean Jaques Rousseau, John Locke and Baron de Montesquieu inspired the Founding Fathers to create a democratic-republic with checks and balances after the American Revolution John Locke's "The Second Treatise of Civil Government" attempted to investigate the question of what makes a government legitimate. He states that in the state of nature, there is not government, and every person has complete liberty to do as he or she pleases. This complete liberty, however, leads to chaos. He concluded that the people in society give up some of their liberty to be governed and for that government to establish order. Having said that, the government gets its authority through the consent of the people. Furthermore, he states that along with establishing order, the government has the responsibility to protect the natural rights of its citizens, the rights of life, liberty, and property. He continues by saying that the people have the authority to change the government if the government fails to uphold its responsibilities. Locke's ideas were adopted by Thomas Jefferson in the declaration of independence, which justifies American independence from British rule by stating that the British government had violated the natural rights of colonial Americans, the rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Jean jaques Rousseau produced the concept of Popular Sovereignty. The word popular simply means "the people" and sovereignty is another word for political authority. Popular sovereignty means that the people have the political authority in government. Similar to Locke's point of view about the role of government, Rousseau believed that the citizens of a country had the authority over government. When the constitution was created, the constitution allowed the people opportunities to elect new leaders periodically in case those politicians: 2 years for members of the house, 6 years for senators, and 4 years for the US president. baron de Montesquieu work focused on the following question: how should a government be created so that one person, or group of people, can't aggrandize tyrannical power. He simplified the question by identifying three different types of political power: legislative, executive, and judicial power. Simply put, legislative power is the power to legislate, or to create laws. Today legislators in the house of representatives and senate propose bills such as environmental protection regulations. Executive power is the power to execute the law, or to put it in action. Today this power is associated with the president's power to sign or veto (deny) a bill proposed by the legislative branch. Judicial power is the power do judge, or the decide if a law/bill violates the constitution. Today, the Supreme Court has made any important decisions about laws that have violated the constitution, such as declaring illegal state laws that ban same-sex marriage. Montesquieu said that if one person in government had all these powers at once, then they would become a tyrant. He proposed that any government should separate these powers into three different branches: the executive branch, legislative branch, and judicial branch. He continued by stating that each branch should have a power to "check" the other branches. The Founding Fathers adopted Montesquieu ideas by creating a 3- branch government and included several "checks" each branch an apply to another branch of government.
What were the arguments for and against the internment of Japanese Americans during WWII?
Advocates of internment cited the threat of Japanese espionage on the pacific coast. Japanese communities in Los Angeles and San Francisco lived close to war production facilities which heightened fears of a "fifth column" sabotaging the war effort. Furthermore, racism towards Japanese people during this time contributed to the discriminatory policy. Opponents of internment referenced the constitution to claim that internment was unconstitutional. Since those who were interned were not guilty of any crime, opponents citied the 4th (no unreasonable search and seizures), 5th (right of notice of charges, aka miranda rights), 6th (right of trial), and 7th (trial by jury) amendments as evidence of the unconstitutionality of Japanese internment. Fred Korematsu, a Japanese American who was arrested for not complying with Executive Order 9066, sued the US government, yet the Supreme Court's decision upheld the executive order, citing that in times of war, the need to protect the US against espionage outweighed the rights of one individual.
A newspaper publishes a new study that finds that drinking untreated tap water increases your risk for cancer. How will this affect the market?
As consumers learn about the risks of drinking tap water, their preferences will change. Although some may ignore the study, most will decide the prefer bottled water over tap water in invest in treating their tap water with a filtration system. The market will be affected in the following way: demand for bottled water and filtration systems will increase, causing a rise of the price equilibrium and raising the price of both bottled waters and filtration systems.