What is a very common mistake made by English as a Second Language Speakers of all levels and abilities?
A very common mistake made by English as a Second Language Speakers of all levels and abilities is to drop the determiner "a" in spoken conversation. For example: "Man walks." The more natural sounding sentence could be: "A man walks." Though the determiners "a" and "an" are taught at an early level of English as a Second Language instruction, and most students know how to use them, and why to use them, they are easy to forget to use in conversational English. Dropping "a" and "an" does not impede comprehension by a native speaker, but is it a little thing that stops an English as a Second Language speaker from sounding natural. One of the most effective ways of remembering to use "a" and "an" correctly, is to have an ESL instructor gently remind you that are dropping these determiners during English Second Language classes, as it would often be considered rude for a native English speaker to correct a Second Language speaker in every day conversation.
Describe the difference between Gothic and Neo-Gothic.
Gothic Art and Architecture developed during the European Middle Ages. It was characterised by the use of long narrow forms, rich patterning, and the decorative and structural use of the pointed arch. It was dominant in Western Europe from about the 12th Century, until it was gradually replaced by Renaissance Classical Styles during and after the Italian Renaissance. Famous examples of gothic architecture include: Saint Denis, and Chartes Cathedral. Neo-Gothic, or the Gothic Revival, developed in England at the end of the 18th Century initially in reaction against various classical revivals, and within the context of a taste for the picturesque. The Neo-Gothic spread throughout Western Europe, and to the European Colonies. A famous example of neo-gothic is the Houses of Parliment in London, England. Neo-Gothic is one of many styles that were revived during the 19th Century which characterised 19th Century ecceclicism.
In your own words, how would you describe the difference between the Florentine School of Painting and the Venetian School of Paining? Why is this significant for later developments?
The Florentine School of Painting placed an emphasis on designo or design. This meant that paintings were carefully prepared through preparatory drawings that explored composition, linear perspective, and lighting. Colour was added at the final stage. The Venetian School of Painting placed an emphasis on colour harmony. The difference between these two approaches lies in the contrast between an approach that is spatially conceived and appeals to the intellect, and an approach that is visceral and appeals to the emotions. These contrasting approaches, while not mutually exclusive, set up a tension within Western European Painting developed from the Italian Schools, and were to have ramifications for centuries. A famous example of this is the debate between the Poussinistes and the Rubenists in the 16th Century French Academy.