What is gerrymandering and what are the side effects of it?
Gerrymandering is when a district is deliberately drawn to favor one group of people over others usually based on political affiliation or race. There are two strategies when it comes to gerrymandering, packing and cracking. Packing is when you draw a district that comprises of people of the same race, political affiliation, religion, etc. A hypothetical example would be this: Imagine a state with 10 districts, and a congressional election just passes where Party A gets 60% of the votes while Party B gets 40% of the votes, but Party A was able to gerrymander using "packing" which means that the majority of Party B's vote would split between 2 districts where their candidates won by substantial margins, but because Party B's votes were mostly in those 2 districts, Party A wins the other 8 seats. By packing Party B's votes in 2 districts, Party A was able to win 80% of the seats while only win 60% of the total vote. The second strategy would be cracking. Cracking is where the districts are drawn to spread the votes of a group of people between many districts limiting their representation. Take the example before. State with 10 districts where Party A wins 60% and Party B wins 40% but instead of putting Party B's supporters in 2 districts, Party A draws the lines separating Party B's main areas of supporting into as many of the districts as possible. This means that Part B is now a slight minority in all the districts and Party A could win 100% of the seats while only winning 60% of the vote. These strategies are far from perfect and can have unintended consequences. When it comes to packing, one of the "packed districts" of Party B could be predominately African-American which may only make up 20% of the state's population. This means that this district is giving an underrepresented community a seat in congress which they might not have had otherwise. Cracking on the other hand can have the potential for a huge blow back. The reason for this is that the districts that Party A are in control of are much closer in voting margin then in the packing scenario, this means in a wave election (an election where Party B has more support than usually). All these seats would have the possibility of flipping. Party A could easily go from all the seats to losing most if not all of them in a different election.
Why are the populations of developed countries aging while developing countries are growing?
The answer to this question has everything to do with the demographic transition model. The model consists of many stages and depending on which stage the countries are in you can understand why some are aging and others not. The first stage is where you have a high birth rate and high death rate, this is where you would find pre-modern civilizations where mothers would bear a lot of children because of the necessity of their labor to help the group survive but the lack of proper medical care meant that many would die early on in life. Stage 2 is where we see developing countries today, better medical care is introduced and the diseases that once killed many were no longer doing so creating a much lower death rate, however the population has not adjusted to these changes in terms of having children. In stage 2 we have a high birth rate still but now most of the children are surviving. Stage 3 is when the society begins to adapt and the birth rate begins to drop until it hits Stage 4, where most developed countries are, This stage is seen as having low birth rates, and low death rates. The reason for this is that the improved medical care has insured most children will not die infancy, the society has adjusted by having less births. A good way to think of it is like this: Stage 1 - High Birth and Death Rate. Mother has 8 children, expects a fair number to not make it to adulthood Stage 2 - High Birth Rate, Low Death; Mother has 8 children, expects a fair number to die but due to medical advancements most survive. (Developing Countries) Stage 3 - Declining Birth Rate, Low Death Rate; Society adjusts Mother starts to have 4 children instead knowing most will live to adulthood Stage 4- Low Birth and Death Rate; Mother has 2 children because of medical advances experts both to live to adulthood, only reaching replacement levels and not population growth
What were the events that led to U.S. involvement in World War I?
Unlike in World War II with Japanese Bombing of Pearl Harbor, there was no one specific event that led the United States into the war, but rather several. One of these would be the Zimmermann Telegram which was a secret message from the government of Germany to the government of Mexico in which Germany promised to return the lands of American Southwest (Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico) to Mexico which they had lost in the Mexican-American War a half century earlier. Mexico was consumed by revolution during this time and showed no interest in telegram. However, the British were able to intercept the telegram and release it to the American public who was already on edge because of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare which leads me into the next event, the sinking of the Lusitania. As stated, Germany was using their U-boats to conduct unrestricted submarine warfare which means that any ship they find of value to destroy, they will, regardless of consequences. This leads to a problem, the U.S. had declared neutrality which they communicated to the Germans as meaning that they should not attack any ship of any nationality with American passengers or they will risk the United States retaliating. The Germans at first complied with this order but this all changed as the war dragged on when Germany was starting to was getting desperate to get an upper hand in the war. They started up their successful program of unrestricted submarine warfare again. The resuming of unrestricted submarine warfare and the American declaration to protect their passengers on the seas, even those in foreign ships, came to ahead with the sinking of the Lusitania. The Lusitania was a British passenger ship that was carrying many American passengers. The Germans spotted this ship and under the suspicion of that the ship was carrying Allied war goods attacked and sank the ship. The American people were outraged by the loss of their fellow citizens and was one incident too many for the public and lead to President Woodrow Wilson asking Congress to declare war.