Tutor profile: Andrew M.
Subject: World History
What influence did Islamic civilization have on the European Renaissance?
Islamic scholars throughout the Middle Ages preserved and translated classical works of Greek philosophy and science, such as the works of Aristotle, while making significant advances in mathematics, medicine, astronomy, and other sciences. Contact between Christian Europe and the Islamic world during and after the Crusades led to the transmission of these texts and ideas into western Europe, where they laid the groundwork for what is called the Renaissance.
Subject: US History
Explain the connection between growing imperialist sentiment and the rise of industrial capitalism in the United States in the late 19th century.
The growth of an unprecedented new class of American industrialists, typified by individuals such as John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, and Andrew Carnegie, produced a fervent drive for business growth and the opening of new markets for American goods. Powerful industrialists sought myriad ways to expand markets both within the United States and abroad. Industry leaders urged political leaders to expand American influence through a combination of "soft" diplomatic power and "hard" military power in order to open new markets for American businesses around the world.
Subject: European History
What is one key difference between "absolute monarchy" as typified by Louis XIV, and "totalitarianism" as exemplified by 20th century authoritarian leaders such as Joseph Stalin?
Totalitarianism requires active participation of citizens. Citizens are expected to demonstrate public, and often private, displays of loyalty to the ruler. Attendance at rallies and parades, use of jargon demonstrating conformity to the ruling faction's doctrine, and, often, paraphernalia displayed in the home or on one's person such as pictures of the ruler are expected of citizens. Citizens are encouraged to report "disloyal" behavior to authorities. An absolute monarchy often rests on state sponsored murals, statues, and other public propaganda, but typically does not enforce rigid expectations of active participation by citizens.
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