Tutor profile: Lara F.
Subject: Veterinarian Science
Case Study: Patient is a 5-year-old female Spaniel. She exhibits intermittent lethargy, inappetence, and myoglobinuria lasting several days at a time. These episodes are precipitated by strenuous exercise, and she usually recovers from these episodes within a week. Blood tests obtained over a 2-year period show intermittent regenerative, macrocytic anemia (PCV between 25-50%), mean corpuscular volume 87-91 fl, and corrected reticulocyte count 3.5-7.0%. Urine is persistently positive for bilirubin and sometimes contains free hemoglobin. Serum creatinine kinase activity is 377 IU/L. What do you think is wrong with the animal? What additional information would you like to have? What further tests would you like to run? What would you diagnose the animal as having and why? How might you treat the animal? What is wrong?
The dog has PFK (Phosphofrucokinase Deficiency). PFK is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that is commonly found in Spaniels and caused by a mutation in the PFKM gene. Phosphofructokinase is the most prevalent rate-controlling enzyme essential to glycolysis, or the metabolic pathway responsible for converting glucose into pyruvate. This genetic disease prevents the metabolism of glucose into available energy which is why it often presents itself as exercise intolerance in the god. One can first make the conclusion that evidence points towards genetic vs toxic diagnosis because the dog has been living with this for several years. Symptoms are matched by the presence of exercise intolerance and the presence of hemoglobinuria/myoglobinuria. Elevated CK levels also point to issues within the muscle and are a textbook symptom of PFK. Additional symptoms of PFK include intermittent periods of anemia which further correlate with the diagnostic results. PFK also explains why there are increased levels of bilirubin in the urine due to the increase in destruction of red blood cells. I would like to see further diagnostic testing done on the heart, including an echocardiogram to rule out and further complications caused by the presence of heart disease. As elevated CK levels are often so indicative of heart issues, I believe this would be a good test to conduct to be on the safe side. Treatment options include fluid therapy to help with hydration. Blood transfusions may also be necessary in cases of severe anemia. The only way to effectively treat PFK is through a bone marrow transplant which is extremely costly and is a high risk procedure. However, dogs can be made comfortable through treating anemia and hydration for the rest of their life. Fatal complications can arise from anemia and kidney failure so symptoms need to be carefully managed in order for the dog to live with the condition.
Subject: Professional Development
What advice can you recommend to someone seeking Professional Development?
The biggest advice I can give anyone seeking development is to find a good mentor. By spending time and learning how previous individuals have become successful is the best action anyone can take.
Subject: Agricultural Science
Support or argument against the use of "Organic" Crops
The organic crop industry is a highly misleading yet profitable industry. To date, there have been zero scientific evidence to support the claim that organic is healthier for you. The term, ''pesticide free'' is misleading as there is no such thing as 100% free, there is just the usage of a different type of pesticide. Due to the growing population, organic harvesting is not a reality when it comes to feeding the masses. This industry pulls farmers away from their homes and into a limited, ultimately doomed industry.
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