In a modern nation state, there are several ways to structure the power of the state. Two opposing times is Unitary states and Federal states. The United States is one of the best examples of Federalism, while France is a modern example of a unitary state.
A unitary state, like Frances, is a state that is governed from a single center of power. This center of power is the central government with sub-administration units getting their power due to the central government delegating it to them. The sub-administration units can be changed at any point my the central government. A federal state, like the United States, is a union of smaller political entities, with a regional/central government above it. In a federal state, power is divided between central government and the small political entities. The political entities also have a degree of self-rule. Unlike the unitary state, the federal state can't change the makeup of the division of power unilaterally by either the smaller political entities or the central government.
In International Relations there are several theories. However, the two major theories of International Relations are Realism and Liberalism. What are the difference between these two theories
There are several differences between Realism and Liberalism; however, the major differences between the two is how each sees the international system. Realism states that the international system is in a state of anarchy with nothing above the sovereign state. The theory focuses on the fact that the states are the only actor in the international system and these states are rational actors, who want as much power as possible for its self-preservation. Liberalism, on the other hand, sees International Organization as being a part of the international system rather than just a tool of states. Liberalism also rejects the notion that states have to gain as much power as possible for their preservation. Instead, the theory sees international cooperation as a way to maintain peace.
The Black Death was one of the significant events in European History. The plague decimated the continent's population. However, even though the plague swept across the entire continent, it had very different effects on the Western and Eastern Europe. Please describe how Western and Eastern Europe was affected by the large population lost.
The Black Death had a significant impact on the development of Europe as a whole and saw the divided between the "two Europes" start. The Black Death killed millions of people, and that created a demand for labor and more available land. In Western Europe, this demand saw the rise of wages and better agreements between Feudal lords and the tenants. This would lead to the erosion of feudalism and the manor system. The lack of labor in Western Europe also spurred labor-saving technology and surplus in goods. In Eastern Europe, it had a different effect. Eastern Europe had a lower population than Western Europe. This meant that although the number of people that died of the plague was not as much as Western Europe, it had a significant impact on the need for labour. Due to the great need for peasants to stay on the land to produce, Lords in Eastern Europe implemented laws that would bind peasants to the land, and this would lead to serfdom.