How do I craft my thesis?
A thesis is a generalized statement that encompasses all the arguments that you will make (later in the essay) all packed in one sentence. A good thesis cannot be too broad, so as to miss the focus of the argument. The thesis is usually a result of a long thinking process, so for me, I usually write the thesis last, that is, after I have all my arguments and evidence collected. So to start, 1. collect your evidence, 2. develop an EVIDENCE-DRIVEN argument 3. summarize your arguments into one sentence (and that sentence would make a good thesis)!
What are the levels of protein structure?
Proteins are categorized by primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure, and quaternary structure. A primary structure is an amino acid sequence of polypeptide chains. A secondary structure is a regular chain folding held by non-covalent H-bonding between peptide groups, such as alpha helixes and beta sheets. A tertiary structure is a 3-dimensional folding held by side-chain interactions between polypeptide chain secondary structures. A quaternary structure is a multi-subunit complex formed by interactions between tertiary structure of two or more polypeptide chains.
How do cells respond to changes in their environment?
Cells have evolved a highly efficient signal integration and communication system to rapidly respond and adapt to changes in the environment. The general mechanisms of cell-signaling communication involved signal sensing at the plasma membrane, signal integration by conformational changes, generation of secondary messengers within the cytoplasm, activation of effectors and amplification, and signal termination (feedback regulation). Feedback mechanisms also control the intensity of response to a cell stimulus to its environment.