Tutor profile: Mitchell M.
Subject: Music Theory
What is the basic structure of Sonata-Allegro form?
Sonata-Allegro form has three main parts, Exposition - Development - Recapitulation. There are possibilities of framing functions, or separate sections either at the beginning (Slow Introduction), or the end (Coda). The Exposition lays out main themes and subordinate themes. The Development functions to destabilize what has been established in the Exposition. The Recapitulation serves to reiterate the exposition and come back to "home".
Describe the difference and progression of instrumentation in orchestras through the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic eras.
The baroque era saw the first true distinctions between chamber and orchestral music. Orchestral music in the Baroque era was characterized by having more than one to a part. Most orchestral settings consisted of mainly strings with limited brass and woodwinds, which were not necessarily two to a part, and a basso continuo (harpsichord and bass accompaniment). The classical era saw an expansion of the orchestra, mainly due the development of the symphony. Beethoven especially expanded the size of the orchestra by increasing the size of the string section, utilizing woodwinds and brass in pairs, and by not utilizing basso continuo. The romantic era expanded the orchestra even further. Brass and woodwinds increased to more than two to a part. Some advancements in instruments, such as the horn, allowed for more versatility. The string section also expanded to accommodate a larger balance needed with the increase of size in the brass, woodwind, and percussion sections.
What is the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning?
Classical conditioning is an associational system of learning that consists of an unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, and a conditioned response. Associated learning occurs when a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus until it becomes a conditioned response. An example of classical conditioning is the experiment of Pavlov's dog. Operant conditioning is a system of learning that is based on rewards and punishments for corresponding behavior. The subject learns by association through reinforcement or punishment.
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