What are the 3 subatomic particles that create an element? What are their charges and where to they reside?
An atom, the smallest particle of which an element is made without loosing its identity, consists of 3 subatomic particles: protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons are charged particles that reside, along with the neutral charged sub-particles called neutrons in the nucleus of the atom; according to Rutherford's atomic theory. This nucleus, uniquely identifies each element according to the number of protons in the nucleus. Electrons, however, are negatively charged sub-particles that reside outside of the nucleus in what is called the electron cloud that surrounds the nucleus.
What does tRNA do inside of the cell?
tRNA ( transfer RNA) is a molecule that alings with mRNA (messenger RNA) by complementary base pairing between 3 nucleotide segments (codons) to transfer a specific amino acid covalently bonded to form a protein.
Why are double bonds stronger than single bonds?
In covalent bonding, a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms from the outermost shell of the atom (valence shell), in order to achieve an electron configuration similar to a noble gas (rule of eight or octet rule); thus making the atoms more stable. A single bond shares 2 electrons between the 2 atoms (sigma bond), while double bonds share 4 electrons between 2 atoms (1 sigma and 1 pi bond). Sharing a higher amount of electrons between atoms reduces the distance between 2 atoms, and requires more energy to break, thus making a double bond stronger than a single bond.