Tutor profile: Carol B.
What is one strategy to incorporate sources into my writing?
Sources can be incorporated in a variety of ways. One thing to pay attention to is whether the style prefers paraphrasing or quotations. Though context matters, whether quoting or paraphrasing, introducing the source is a good option. This can look like an attributive phrase or a signal, such as, "In her novel Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, J.K. Rowling deals with themes such as," "Descartes states that," or "In her writings, Virginia Woolf argues." This is especially important when paraphrasing to ensure the reader is aware that the information is coming from an alternate source. Since paraphrasing does not involve direct quotations but rather rewords the material, it is helpful to include the author or source title in the sentence.
What is a comma splice and how would one fix it?
A comma splice is when two or more independent clauses or complete sentences are joined together by only a comma. Here is an example of a comma splice: Sir Matthew Flinders Petrie was an English Egyptologist, he is known as one of the first archaeologists to use systematic methodology. There are several different ways we could fix this, though these will depend on the context and meaning you are trying to impart. We could use a conjunction after the comma. Sir Matthew William Flinders Petrie was an English Egyptologist, and he is known as one of the first archaeologists to use systematic methodology. We could change the comma to a period and add a capital letter. Sir Matthew Flinders Petrie was an English Egyptologist. He is known as one of the first archaeologists to use systematic methodology. We could use a semicolon. Sir Matthew Flinders Petrie was an English Egyptologist; he is known as one of the first archaeologists to use systematic methodology. We could add a subordinating conjunction, by adding a dependent word. While Sir Matthew Flinders Petrie was an English Egyptologist, he is known as one of the first archaeologists to use systematic methodology.
What is the importance and definition of material culture and how does it differ from non-material culture, especially in how this pertains to archaeology?
Both material and non-material culture are important for and are the key expressions through which a culture is represented and differentiated, defining the values, daily living, and beliefs of a group of people and society. Especially through an archaeological lens, material culture becomes key in how and what we can learn about past cultures. As the tangible expression of a culture through physical objects, material culture can provide insight on things from burial habits, spiritual and philosophical beliefs, economic systems, hierarchy and power distributions, food resources and diet, the value placed on life, technology, what people wore, etc. This coincides with and reinforces non-material culture, which refers to the beliefs, values, morals, and spirituality of a culture: the religion, the accepted behaviors, the laws, etc. Material and non-material cultural are tied together in how one is able to interpret past cultures. For example, art, material culture, can express religious beliefs, non-material culture. Burial practices - for instance, who is being buried, how they are buried, what they are buried with - all express the beliefs of a culture, in who is valued, the power that person held, which can tell us about the hierarchical structure, whether it was a war burial, the beliefs in an afterlife, and so on.
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