Tutor profile: Sankalp S.
Subject: Industrial Design
Ineffective and lack of optimized supply chain leading to two major and pressing problems. They are wastage of perishable food and an increase in carbon footprint. The focus is to reduce these two by developing a better transportation model.
Introduction: The paper suggests a novel technique for reducing carbon footprints through effective management of transportation and significantly reducing the fuel consumption. Through effective modeling and innovative techniques suggested not just the amount of fuel consumption is reduced but the time required to transport the food is reduced to a large extent. This in turn leads to less queuing time. Perishable foods prone to wastage and quick deterioration can be reduced through this novel technique. As a result of smart inventory management and quick transportation amount of time taken for transporting food is reduced. It not only helps food to stay on the shelf for longer days but also results in a much higher probability of food being sold and reaching consumers. Swift transportation not only helps food to stay in store for a longer time but also helps in utilizing the resources to optimum. The suggested technique helps to overcome the pertaining problem of perishable food waste. The previous literature does not lay emphasis on swift transportation and effective inventory analysis as a result there is a continued trend of food being wasted despite employing supply chain management techniques and inventory management. Suggested methodologies take various available methods of transportation into consideration and opt for the optimum method by taking various critical, analytical, and computational measures into consideration which are further discussed at length in the paper. Technique or mode of transportation is the swiftest and also the consumption of fuel is least resulting in the least carbon emission. So employing this technique two critical challenges of supply chain management for food waste and carbon footprint can be resolved. Methodology: There is a flowchart that states how various means of transportation are taken into consideration. Moreover, various critical and decisive parameters are considered and computed namely economy, fuel consumption, fuel efficiency, and carbon emission through a technique called queuing. Then the decision is taken to opt for the most optimal method to be implemented from various available methods. Results of this computation technique are obtained namely a decrease in fuel consumption, a decrease in carbon emission. Based on these results the technique which involves least carbon emission and fuel consumption is employed. The diagram helps in finding out the Te, which is the estimated time. Estimated time is made maximum by considering all the factors and by going through the optimized route. This route is known as the critical path. Considerations of Ei and Li which are the early start time and latest end time are also computed. Early start time is added up in the process from point 1 and the latest end time is subtracted from point 7 which is the end of the path. The maximum value attained for Ei which is the early start time, which is the end of the process even by going through the dummy events turns out to be Te, which is the estimated time for the process. Now Te is obtained only if both the Early start time and the latest end time in case of the Critical path are equal. A critical path is found through which our food or the prepared material will move from the supplier to the industry and then back to the customers. With time being optimized it is now required to reduce the queue time in the entire formulation that is taken or assumed. Paper takes into the assumption that there is no positive or negative crash in the entire system, meaning that there is no overtime performed by the employees and there is no failure within the supply chain. There is another assumption that is considered is that the transportation system within the industry which is the belt conveyor system runs safe and without failure. As time is optimized and known using PERT the entire transport within the scheduled time will be completed and time is optimized hence. Now it is required to reduce the entire time frame in order to have the least time. This can be achieved by reducing the queue time of the process. Here we would be using the queuing theory in order to reduce the congestion and the emission in the process so that we can reduce environmental pollutants and wastes and take a step towards saving energy with limited resources. In order to reduce the complication in the process queue, the theory is used in the process to reduce the queuing which would in turn reduce the time in the process. One of the challenging issues in supply chain management is to find optimal policies for inventory systems. The main objective of inventory management is to balance conflicting goals such as stock costs and shortage costs. Conclusion: A novel transportation technique is developed which to reduce the amount of transportation time by 14-30 days. By reducing the amount of transportation time, a significant amount of food wastage has been reduced. To better assess the efficacy of the technique a practical problem is taken, i.e., coffee and how the inventory required for coffee can be transported quickly so it can be ensured that coffee beans which are perishable are used. Also to attain sustainability spent coffee grounds which generally goes unused can be utilized for producing biodiesel, fertilizers, and ethanol. In sum, this paper not only states a novel technique to reduce food wastage through transportation technique but also ensures how used coffee beans can also be reused and can go on to be a raw material for making the finished products and attain sustainability.
Subject: Mechanical Engineering
APPLICATIONS OF 3D PRINTING IN DENTISTRY
Technological developments have made a significant impact and contribution to the field of dentistry. Right from the adaptation of lost wax technique in jewelry fabrication in the early 20th century for the fabrication of crowns and bridge to the recent influence of computer-aided design and machining (CAD-CAM) technology on the digitisation of restorations. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging additive manufacturing technique capable of building complex 3D geometric structures, which can be used as scaffolds for craniofacial tissue engineering including the fabrication of bio-compatible polymeric implants, the replication of intricate matrix geometries, and the development of biodegradable scaffolds, to cultivate transplantable tissues or organ replacements. The scaffold is a porous polymeric matrix or installation in which cells penetrate into, so to regrow the damaged tissue. Scaffolds can be made of natural or synthetic materials, which temporarily support cells and supervise their growth via cell-material interactions and biologic factor release. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging additive manufacturing technique capable of building complex 3D geometric structures, which can be used as scaffolds for craniofacial tissue engineering including the fabrication of bio-compatible polymeric implants, the replication of intricate matrix geometries, and the development of biodegradable scaffolds, to cultivate transplantable tissues or organ replacements. It is a novel technique which consists of various different types of methodologies such as Inkjet Printing, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), selective laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography (SLA), polyjet printing which becomes an important tool for the development of tissue-like constructs for oral surgery, or in the application of Prosthodontics, Orthodontics, Periodontics, etc. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) printers are the most common to begin within a medical or dental set-up owing to its wide availability, moderately reliable printing quality, ease of installation, and use and economic affordability . Both SLS and SLA use a laser to scan and build the object layer by- layer, while SLS uses powder-based material for printing the object, SLA is based on a liquid resin material. It overcomes the printing resolution and support material limitations of the FDM, however, object shrinkage is a matter of concern . Biocompatible polymeric implants, replication of intricate geometries, and biodegradable scaffolds for tissue engineering are a few of its major applications. This paper reviews the various applications of 3D printing methodologies in the field of dentistry which makes it an accessible platform for scientists to budding dentists and dental surgeons in the field of additive manufacturing. Application: The concept of using 3D printing for periodontal tissue regeneration is to guide locally available cells to restore periodontal defects, termed guided tissue regeneration (GTR). These cells can use the support of a 3D printed scaffold, as well as surrounding growth factors, bio-active proteins, etc., to regenerate damaged periodontal tissues. In the tissue complexity, there is a difficulty in periodontal regeneration as bone tissues requires more time to regenerate as compared to the epithelial tissues. To address these challenges, the creation of multiphasic scaffolds has allowed for various properties within a scaffold, which mimics better the composition of the native periodontal complex. Lee and colleagues, for instance, 3D printed PCL-HA scaffolds with varying sizes of microchannels to create a compartmentalized multiphasic scaffold. FDM was used to create these scaffolds, which had 100-micrometer microchannels designed for the cementum/dentin interface, 600 micrometers for the periodontal ligament (PCL), and 300 micrometers for the alveolar bone. Fucile work on the design and manufacturing analysis compared PCL and PCL HA and showed how PCL HA is better than the other in terms of mechanical and structural parameters. In Jingqi Ma’s works, four groups of 3D printing scaffolds were fabricated: PCL, PCL/PVAc, PCL/HA, and PCL/PVAc/HA for comparison. The morphologies, mechanical properties, and biological characteristics of these scaffolds were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), a material testing machine, in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal experiments. The results showed that these 3D printed scaffolds possessed porous channel structures with a hole size of 375–475 micrometers and porosity of 74.1–76.1%. The compressive moduli of the scaffolds increased with the addition of HA and decreased with the addition of PVAc. The PCL/PVAc/HA scaffold exhibited higher cell proliferation and bone formation rates than other groups. Conclusion: 3D printing has the capacity to revolutionize dentistry. The different technologies have been applied for a variety of purposes in the field of dentistry. Currently, the main focus is on surgical planning and the indirect production of implants or orthodontic aligners by printing the molds for these objects. In addition, 3D printing is used to create personalized tissue engineering scaffolds for usage in oral surgery. Its application also ranges from the structures used in the dental pulp to the structures such as dentures used in Endodontics, Prosthodontics, and Periodontics. During the printing process, it is important to know that the part being produced is free of defects to avoid reprinting of parts which saves time and cost. The emergence of 3D laser scanning technologies has significantly enhanced inspection system capabilities by providing high-density 3D point cloud data. Modified ALGR with a growing ROI approach is been more used in today’s date which detects the defects with high accuracy as well as provides the location of those defects.
Subject: Architectural Engineering
Tourist Behavior and Carrying Capacity in Heritage structures
Introduction Historic preservation (US), heritage preservation or heritage conservation (UK), is an endeavor that seeks to preserve, conserve, and protect buildings, objects, landscapes, or other artifacts of historical significance. This term refers specifically to the preservation of the built environment, and not to the protection of, for example, primeval forests or wilderness. In historic preservation, there are two types of Heritage, Tangible and Intangible heritage. The sustainability topic has increased tourism in such places throughout the world significantly, which as significant pros and cons for the respective country. Factors Deteriorating Heritage Buildings Tourism offers various advantages. Concessions, Donations, and funds for restorations and preservation efforts. Tourism can also promote traditional values of the respective site, which is an intangible heritage like handicrafts, traditional dance, etc. of the place. On the downside, tourism spawns well-known problems like environmental control, quality of the soil, Solar radiation, traffic vibration, Temperature, and tourist and local behavior towards the heritage structure. Massive urban scale development has continued to threaten the existence of heritage buildings in the region for a long time. Many heritage buildings are being demolished to pave the way for the construction of wider roads, schools, hospitals, shopping malls, and parking. Some of these buildings, especially those located in the central business district, have been under threats of demolition from the public and private developers seeking more lucrative ventures only. Since its discovery about 100 years approximately by Hiram Bingham III, Machu Pichu came into existence to the world. In the year 2016, it was visited by a record 1.4 million tourists, but despite its commercial success and the revenue, it brings to Peru’s tourism, this one the Seven Wonders of the world is under some serious threat due to these numbers. Nelson Huaman Quispe, a guide working for the Machu Picchu Andes Tour, states that this large influx of tourists to this monument on the slopes of Andes is already causing some grave damage, which in the long run will have serious consequences. According to him, many tourists do things they shouldn’t be doing – such as climbing on the structures, picking stones from the structures, marking on the floors and the walls, and causing chaos. Despite all this, the Peruvian government has plans of expanding the cap on the number of visitors to this site up to 5940, which is more than twice the number initially recommended by UNESCO (2500,), a United Nations cultural wing. The Peruvian government plans to divide these numbers into the morning (3267) and afternoon visits (2673). Each time slot will have a duration, which shall not allow people to stay at the site at all times. Furthermore, being a tourist magnet, but this blessing to the structure has now become a threat to the structure. During the reign of the powerful Inca, the citadel was occupied fewer the 1000 people. Whereas last year there are more than 5000 people on an average walked on the path of Machu Picchu. The busiest months for the tourist boom in this place is between July to August. Machu Picchu is a complex site where visitors are free to stay as long as they wish and explore many kilometers of paths, roadways, and open spaces without a guide. Some tourists arrive at the site via bus from the local town, while others reach it on foot from one of the sanctuary’s Inca Trails. Researchers used ArcGIS Network Analyst to record tourists' typical visit times along paths and insignificant locations at Machu Picchu, making it possible to explore alternative routes. The morning slot starting from 6 am the busiest, with the majority of visitors flocking to the site to see the sunset, while by the afternoon slot opens, the majority of the visitors (around 80 %) have already left the site. The afternoon slot is nearly crowded less and thus not only explains why the Peruvian government does not only want to increase the number, but the morning slot has more visitors than the afternoon. This imbalance in the numbers in the two-time slots, not only needs balancing and management, but people should be welcomed into the site in small numbers at different time slots, rather than coming in large numbers. This would lead to better management of the crowds, a lesser number of people, and better supervision. It is important to understand how people move around the site, understand bottlenecks and stress points, and accordingly plan action.
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