True or false: The Bill of Rights has always applied to state laws, not just Congressional (national) laws.
FALSE: The US Constitution used to only apply to the national government. It wasn't until the 14th Amendment, and through the legal doctrine of selective incorporation, did the Supreme Court begin to apply the Constitution to the states. Before, states could have an official religion, even if Congress could not establish one. Today, no state can respect the establishment of a religion.
What is the essential component for a government to exist and have any stable power?
In order for a government to properly rule over others and maintain power in a stable environment, that government must have legitimacy in the eyes of those it governs. Legitimacy has been established in different ways throughout history, such as the divine mandate of kings. In modern times, most governments can only be legitimate if it has an adequate provision for democratic participation by citizens. This is the principle of having the consent of the governed.
A bureaucratic official may very well, by law, have the authority to enact this policy or another. But what else does the official need in order to enact policy?
The official will need the power to enact policy. Authority is laid out by law, ascribing this person or that person to this role and that role. However, that authority means very little if people refuse to listen or follow what the official has to say. The ability to influence and control is power. In fact, it is entirely possible (in some countries, even common), that someone has the power to do something without having the authority.