You are a nurse currently working with a physician in an endoscopy suite within the hospital. During the upper endoscopy procedure, an endoscope (with light and camera) is inserted into the patient's gastrointestinal tract via the mouth. The physician observes the lining of the small intestine to look abnormal. He/she decides to take biopsies for microscopic evaluation. You are in charge of filling out the form to request a pathologist to examine the tissue. You quickly fill out the slip as "ilium biopsy" and move on because there are many cases yet to perform today. What did you do wrong?
You filled out the request slip as "ilium biopsy". While ilium is indeed a medical term, it describes a bone within the pelvis. You meant to write ileum, the last region of the small intestine. The two terms are pronounced the same, yet have different meanings. If the mistake was not caught by someone in the pathology lab, the wrong tests might be ordered to evaluate the tissue. This could hold up the results and unnecessarily cost the hospital and/or patient.
In an animal cell, which of the following statements correctly describes microvilli? a. Are part of the cytoskeleton b. Increase surface area for the absorption of nutrients c. Become the spindle fiber apparatus during cell division d. Beat rhythmically to propel substances over the surface of the cell e. Anchor the cytoskeleton to the cell membrane
The correct answer is b -- Certain cells, such as those found in the small intestine, have microscopic hair-like projections of the cell membrane that increase surface area for important cell functions such as absorption of nutrients from food. You may know someone with Crohn's Disease. This is a type of inflammatory bowel disease causing irritation and damage of the lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. When the small intestine is affected, malnutrition issues can occur.
1. The pyloric sphincter allows passage of digested material from the ______ to the ______. a. Mouth, esophagus b. Rectum, anus c. Ileum, cecum d. Stomach, duodenum e. Small intestine, large intestine
The correct answer is d -- The pyloric sphincter is the valve between the stomach and duodenum (first region of the small intestine) that allows passage of digested material. Once in the duodenum, bile secreted from the gallbladder mixes with material to help break down fats. You may have heard of an infant with projectile vomiting -- this can be due to narrowing of the pyloric sphincter, called pyloric stenosis. The stomach cannot fully empty, and the contents need somewhere to go, which in this case, is up and out via vomiting.