What elements are essential for any short story?
The primary elements that are essential for any short story are embedded within the structure of the story. Every short story follows the same progression: introduction, rising action, climax, falling action, conclusion. Within this frame, they must include setting, description of main characters, a main problem/conflict, and the resolution of the conflict. If all of these elements are included in a coherent way, then the writer will be able to share their plot to the reader in a powerful way.
Discuss the importance of a frame narrative and discuss why an author might use it as a literary device.
Frame narratives are a fascinating literary device. They present the setting of the story through the eye of an outsider (in Wuthering Heights, it is through the eyes of a new tenant to the Grange, in Heart of Darkness, an explorer who has never see the Congo before). This is key for many of these stories because the primary narrator is unreliable and this outsider anchors us into the reality of what can actually be seen and experienced. We relate to the narrator outside of the frame and it helps us (the readers) to fully engage with the story. It also allows the author to present doubts about their primary characters and their stories within the context of the story - because this outsider has no significant ties to the story (rather like the reader) they can voice these doubts/concerns without seeming contrived.
Describe primary factor that lead to the secession of the southern United States in 1860.
The political and social climate during the 1860 election was a key factor in the secession of the southern states. For years, there had been growing animosity between the Northern states (who primarily relied on manufacturing as their income) and the Southern states (who required their large agrarian estates to generate income). This social tension paved the way for the tension about states' rights. The northern states had more power in the government, and the southern states did not trust that the decisions made by the manufacturing-driven north would be beneficial for their agrarian economy. This concern about states' rights and the need to preserve states' autonomy was the primary factor in many of the southern states' decision to secede from the union.