What are "SMART" goals, and how can you use them to maximize your studying skills?
"SMART" goals are goals that are Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Timely. It is important that when you set your studying schedule, you first think about what it is that you want to accomplish, and the specific way that you might go about doing this. For example, maybe you want to receive an "A" in organic chemistry. At the beginning of the semester, you may plan to go to your professor's office hours at least once a week to go over homework problems -- this is a specific and measurable way to achieve results. However, let's imagine you work a part-time job and are also student athlete, making it impossible for you to go by your professor's office every single week. Promising this to yourself is not realistic nor attainable, so you would need to adjust your SMART goal accordingly. Perhaps instead, you plan to go to office hours the week prior to every exam. Finally, it is important to make sure that all of your goals are timely, because if you have a million questions for your professor right before the final, you may not be able to figure out all of the answers in time. My best study advice would be to start out every semester outlining a few SMART goals for your courses, and sticking to them to the best of your ability.
What is the difference between implicit and explicit memory? How do researchers test for implicit and explicit memory in subjects?
Implicit memory refers to the types of memories that we do not have conscious access to. Procedural memories, like learning to ride a bike, are one example of implicit memory. Explicit memory refers to the types of memories that we DO have conscious access to, such as our episodic memories for events and semantic memories for facts. Different tasks are required for both implicit and explicit memory. For implicit memory, psychology researchers use word fragment tasks. Subjects are first shown a list of priming words before being presented word fragments they must complete (ex. -ea--fu- = "peaceful"). Fragments for words that were primed or received more elaborate processing may be better completed than irrelevant words. Explicit memory can be tested more directly; for instance, subjects may be asked to list as many pleasant and unpleasant memories they can recall in the past month. Successful recall indicates that the subject has conscious access to those memories.
What does it mean when someone experiences "agnosia," and what types of agnosia are there? Choose one and explain.
Agnosia is the inability to sense or perceive objects in the environment, as a result of brain damage. Patients can experience visual agnosia, apperceptive agnosia, associative agnosia, integrative agnosia, and prosopagnosia. Visual agnosia occurs when a patient cannot recognize an object when viewing it, but may be able to name the object through another sense (for example, by picking up a spoon, or hearing it clink against glass, they may recognize the object as a spoon, but they cannot do this through their sense of sight alone). Visual agnosia occurs due to brain damage to the occipital lobe, which houses the primary visual system.