What is the easiest way to formulate a question in French?
One easy way to formulate a question is by using the words "est-ce que." Start with a question word, if you need one (like "Quand," "Où," etc.), then add the words "est-ce que," then finish your question with a subject and verb like in a normal sentence. This will give you sentences like: "Où est-ce que tu vas aller ce weekend?" or "Quand est-ce que Marie arrive?".
What were the ideological differences between the Federalist Party and the Democratic-Republican Party?
The Federalists [F] and the Democratic-Republicans [D-R] differed on five key issues. (1) NATIONAL VS. STATE GOVERNMENTS: F favored a strong central government, while D-R favored a limited national government and greater local control. (2) FRENCH REVOLUTION: F opposed the Revolution and did not want Americans to support the anti-monarchy group, while D-R supported French popular forces and American support for them. (3) JAY TREATY: F supported the treaty as a way of building better relations with Britain, while D-R opposed the treaty, wanting to prioritize relations with France. (4) ALIEN & SEDITION ACTS: F supported them as a way of preventing growth of the D-R party and as a way to limit criticism of their own party, while D-R opposed them as a threat to individual citizens' liberties. (5) HAMILTON'S ECONOMIC PLANS: F wholeheartedly supported them, while D-R opposed them because of their potential to weaken the power of the states and to disproportionately aid Northern states.
What were the causes of the French Revolution?
You can think about the causes of the French Revolution through four different lenses: political, economic, social, and ideological. First, the political: (1) Louis XIV was an ineffective ruler, paying more attention to his own entertainment than to running the country; and (2) the monarchy and the nobility were at odds due to differing visions of "reform" of the tax system, which led to political deadlock and state bankruptcy. Second, the economic: (1) France's hunger for a larger empire and its desire to be the top power in Europe led it to exceed the financial resources it had; and (2) food shortages resulting from the agrarian crisis of 1788-1789 led to disorder and popular discontent. Third, the social: the rise of the bourgeoisie alongside the aristocracy led to antagonism between the two groups. And fourth, the ideological: the Enlightenment's impulse toward reform in Europe intensified political conflict and introduced new ideas of good government, including the radical idea of popular sovereignty.