Tutor profile: Zuben K.
Subject: Environmental Science
Green House Effect and Global warming.
The greenhouse effect is a process that occurs when greenhouse gases like water vapor (H. 2O), carbon dioxide (CO. 2), methane (CH. 4), nitrous oxide (N. 2O), and ozone (O3) in Earth's atmosphere trap the Sun's heat. This process makes Earth much warmer than it would be without an atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is one of the things that makes Earth a comfortable place to live. A greenhouse is like a building with glass walls and a glass roof. Greenhouses are used to grow plants, such as tomatoes and tropical flowers. A greenhouse stays warm inside, even during the winter. In the daytime, sunlight shines into the greenhouse and warms the plants and air inside. At nighttime, it's colder outside, but the greenhouse stays pretty warm inside. That's because the glass walls of the greenhouse trap the Sun's heat. The greenhouse effect works in the same way on Earth. Anthropogenic activities are changing Earth's natural greenhouse effect. Burning fossil fuels like coal and oil puts more carbon dioxide into our atmosphere.NASA has observed increases in the amount of carbon dioxide and some other greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. Too much of these greenhouse gases can cause Earth's atmosphere to trap more and more heat. This causes Earth to warm up. Just like a glass greenhouse, Earth's natural greenhouse is also full of plants. Plants can help to balance the greenhouse effect on Earth. All plants, from giant trees to tiny phytoplankton in the ocean take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. The ocean also absorbs a lot of excess carbon dioxide in the air. Unfortunately, the increased carbon dioxide in the ocean changes the water, making it more acidic. This is called ocean acidification.
what are the main factors affects nitrogen use efficiency of desert plants in extreme environments?
Nitrogen utilization efficiency depends on what type of vegetation, and the relative presence of microbial biomass in wetter areas; the main driver is soil holding capacity, vegetation patterns and temperature; these in turn depend on vegetation cycle. There could be two key factors, one related to desert plant itself and another related to soil, since most of the desert plants are xerophytes in nature growing naturally. Soils are predominantly alkaline in nature coupled with salinity issue, low nitrogen level, low P level, and most of the micronutrients are also within deficient range. Plants also need to have low transpiration rate, low water requirement (having capacity of more crop per drop). So, nitrogen -use -efficiency under such trying environment, needs to be dictated by both plants ability to respond to applied nutrients and produce maximum at unit cost of nitrogen.
Difference between monocot and dicot roots.
Angiosperms are the most diversified group in the plant kingdom, with around 2,00,000 species. This includes herbs, shrubs, and trees, all of which reproduce sexually through seeds. Depending on the number of cotyledons in the seed, angiosperms are of two types- monocot and dicot plants. The differences between the plants arising from a monocotyledonous seed and from a dicotyledonous seed are very evident. The difference in anatomy of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous roots. Dicot Root * Dicot plants have the taproot system. * The outermost layer is called epidermis. The epidermal cells sometimes project out which appear as the root hairs. * The epidermis is followed by multi-layered cortex, loosely made of the parenchyma cells with intercellular spaces. * The inner layer of the cortex is called endodermis, which is tightly packed by the barrel shaped-cells. * Endodermis is followed by pericycle, which are a few layers of thick-walled parenchyma cells. * In dicots, the central pith is inconspicuous. * The number of xylem and phloem are two to four. * The xylem and phloem are distinguished by a layer of parenchymatous cells called conjunctive tissue. * During secondary growth, the cambium separates the xylem and phloem. Pericycle, vascular bundles and pith fuse to form stele in dicots. Monocot Root Monocot roots do not show much difference in the anatomy from that of the dicot roots. * Monocot plants have an adventitious root system. * As in the dicots, the epidermis forms the outermost layer, followed by cortex, endodermis, pericycle, vascular bundles (xylem and phloem) and pith. * Pith is large and conspicuous. * The number of xylem in a monocot is six or more. * Secondary growth is absent in the monocot plants.
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