Tutor profile: Lauren P.
Subject: Health and Medicine
If carbonic anhydrase inhibitors work on the proximal tubule (where 60-70% of sodium and water is returned to the bloodstream), why are they considered to be weak diuretics? Why wouldn't they be more potent since they are working at the site where most Na+ and H2O are absorbed and therefore, inhibit a larger amount of re-absorption?
They work well as a diuretic, but their diuretic action is only effective for 1–2 weeks. The best results are obtained when a CAI is skipped every other day or every 2 days, giving the kidneys an opportunity to recover lost bicarb. Most CAIs now are used to reduce intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and before surgery in cases of angle-closure glaucoma because of their ability to suppress aqueous humor formation.
Subject: Nutrition and Wellness
Can local honey be used to treat seasonal allergies?
There were only 2 studies done looking at using local honey to treat allergy symptoms. The first showed no improvement. The second only showed improvement if birch pollen was specifically added - without that addition it didn't help. Remember that bees are in the business of collecting a flower's nectar, not pollen to produce honey. Therefore very little pollen is deposited in honey. Also, the pollen they handle is produced by flowers that require cross-pollination by insects unlike the majority of allergy triggering tree, grass and weed plants that do not require insects to carry pollen for fertilization. They produce huge amounts of pollen and depend on the wind for distribution/pollination. They don't need the bees. Yes, some of the allergen inducing pollen grains end up in the honey but they are in insignificant quantity.
Methadone is used to treat opioid dependence since it blocks the receptors, preventing the sense of euphoria and feeling "high" but it also has a high risk of abuse. Can you explain how and why it has a high risk of abuse?
Methadone is an opioid agonist, so it stimulates the opioid receptors which give pain relief and decrease the withdrawal symptoms that a patient going through treatment for opioid abuse would experience. It does however block the NMDA receptors which helps with the analgesia effects of the drug. It works for opioid dependence as it does not give an immediate high due to the long half life. It is used to help decrease withdrawal symptoms and decrease cravings. The dose is gradually tapered while the patient is in a methadone treatment program until the medication can be stopped. So, even though Methadone does not give the patient an immediate high when they take it, it does still stimulate opioid receptors and if stopped abruptly will cause withdrawal symptoms.
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