Tutor profile: Shelby C.
I am stuck in the writing process and feel extremely overwhelmed. What are steps I can take to ensure that I am planning adequately for the writing process? And how can I adjust my expectations about the writing process to promote success in the classroom?
1. Think about your big picture writing goals (i.e. What is the purpose of my writing? Who comprises my audience? What genre of writing is required of me? What class is this writing for? What is the appropriate length of the writing piece? When is the deadline?) 2. Set aside specific time to plan, draft, write, and edit. These should not all be included in one continuous process. It is beneficial for you to set aside an entire day(s) to plan. The planning process will include rudimentary research, article selection, outlining, etc. The drafting process will include an extended (dense) outline, introduction/conclusion drafts, and main ideas selected for body paragraphs. The draft process might take you days to weeks. This is a time for you to write freely and without concern for grammar, syntax, coherence. Write what comes to your mind and edit later during the writing/editing stage. The writing and editing stages go hand-in-hand. As you are writing, you might realize that some paragraphs may need to be moved around. This is ok. It is natural to edit a draft. It is also advised that you seek out two peers or teachers/instructors/professors to read your final draft before you submit it. Feedback from peers and teachers can only strengthen your writing.
How do we classify behavior as pathological for children? (Childhood Psychopathologies)
When deciding a child's behavior is pathological, we have to think about normality and abnormality on a continuum. We must think about disorders within the context of typical development. Once we align the child on a continuum of typical development (between normal and abnormal ends), we must first consider the context of the behavior. If the abnormal behavior occurs in more than three different contexts (i.e. school, home, grocery stores, etc.), it might be diagnosable. We must then determine how distressful the behavior is to the child (internalize) or others (externalize). Children, unlike adults, externalize more than internalize distressful behaviors. Lastly, we must examine whether the behavior interferes with the child's daily life. How functional is the child? Can he attend school or church with minimal problems? Does he sleep well/through the night? Can he maintain social relationships with peers? All of these questions need to be asked when addressing functionality.
Subject: English as a Second Language
Is grammar drilling an effective teaching technique when working with English learners?
No, grammar drilling is not effective because ELs learn grammar rules in a natural, specific order. This order is universal across English learners with varying native (L1) languages. For example, a student fluent in Japanese will learn English grammar in the same order as a Spanish-speaking student. Language is mostly acquired, not taught. The Natural Order Hypothesis states that language learners acquire grammar rules and features in a fixed order regardless of instructional methods. So, for an English learner to acquire English, teachers must be aware that students might learn certain features of English grammar before others. ESL educators must give ELs comprehensible input (CI) so they can produce effective output. When instruction is differentiated and repetitive (i.e. comprehensible), ELs acquire language easier and quicker.
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