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Chrys M.
Biotechnology graduate from Georgetown University, tutor for six years.
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Organic Chemistry
TutorMe
Question:

Which synthetic pathway would you choose to make Propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH) starting with Methane (CH4).

Chrys M.
Answer:

First, react Methane with Br2 by heating or shining UV light in order to have a free radical substitution occur, resulting in CH3-Br. Then, react CH3-Br with two equivalents of Lithium (Li) to get CH3-Li (plus LiBr, bi-product salt). Then, create a Gilman reagent using CH3-Li to react with CuBr (two equivalents of CH3-Li are needed). This will yield (CH3)--CuLi, the Gilman reagent, also called Organocuprate. Then, react the Gilman reagent in a coupling reaction with an ethylene epoxide (CH2CH2O). Reaction is thermodinamically favorable and will yield CH3CH2CH2O- . Drip a few drops of acid (HCl or H2SO4) to protonate the anion into Propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH).

French
TutorMe
Question:

Decrivez en un paragraphe votre journée.

Chrys M.
Answer:

Ma journée s'est bien passée. D'abord, je suis allé au marché car je n'avais plus de quoi manger à la maison. Ensuite, je suis parti rendre visite à un ami que je n'avais pas vu depuis le début du semestre. Nous avons bien ri en regardant Big Bang Theory à la télévision. Après cela, j'ai décidé d'aller acheter un livre dans une librairie. Puisque je suis en vacances, j'aurai beaucoup de temps pour lire. Vers six heures du soir, je suis finalement rentré chez moi, satisfait de cette journée.

Biochemistry
TutorMe
Question:

Explain the molecular basis for Sickle Cell Anemia. Why has it been selected for in nations near the equator?

Chrys M.
Answer:

Sickle Cell Anemia is caused by a point mutation in the hemoglobin protein, resulting in Valine (Val, V)—a nonpolar amino acid, instead of glutamic acid (Glu, E)—a polar, negatively charged amino acid. This results in an alteration of the hemoglobin shape, causing a polymerization of hemoglobin in rods, causing red blood cells to "sickle." These "rods" of mutated hemoglobin cause a rupture of red blood cells plasma membrane, resulting in anemia. Malaria, an infectious disease caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, is prevalent in equatorial regions. Plasmodium targets red blood cells for reproduction. Because of this, sickle cell anemia patients gain a resistance to Malaria due to its weakened red blood cells, which cannot host the parasite for reproduction. These patients therefore survive and can pass on the mutation to their offspring, assuring the persistence of the mutation in this region of the world.

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