I'm studying dysphagia/swallowing disorders. What is the difference between aspiration and penetration of food or drink?
Important question! First, let's define these terms. Aspiration occurs when food/liquid/bolus reaches beyond the vocal folds. Penetration occurs when food/liquid/bolus enters the laryngeal vestibule but does not go past the vocal folds. Many hospitals use an Aspiration-Penetration scale to further classify each group (i.e. note residue present and cough response). For example, it may be important to note that the patient penetrated liquid, followed by an independent cough with no residual. Another patient may aspirate liquid beyond the vocal folds, with no cough and residual after the swallow. The patient's performance will ultimately help the team decide his/her diet recommendations.
Word Problem: "Sara found 84 seashells at the beach, and she gave Tim some of her shells. She has 28 seashells left. How many seashells did Sara give Tim?"
Thanks for your question! For this problem, we need to find a missing number - the number of seashells Sara gave Tim. To find this, we are going to set up an equation or problem that will have the letter "x" stand for the number of seashells given to Tim. "x" is just a placeholder while we solve the problem. Let's set it up and solve for "x". x=the number of seashells Sara gave Tim 84 - (x) = 28 -28 -28 56 - x = 0 -56 -56 - x = -56 /-1 /-1 x=56 seashells given to Tim Equation Steps: 1. We want to get the "x" by itself. We complete the addition/subtraction first. Because the 28 is positive, subtract 28 from each side of the equation. 2. We continue to work to get "x" by itself. Next, we address the multiplication/division. The "-x" represents the same as (-1)(x). So, divide each side by -1. 3. We have isolated x. x= 56 seashells. 4. Once you have found x, check if your answer seems reasonable. Based on the problem, we would expect a number approximately between 2 and 82. If you find "x" and the number doesn't make sense (ex: x= -56 seashells), that's a good opportunity to check your work. Let's Check the Answer! - In algebra, you can often check your answer by plugging in your answer for the variable ("x") and seeing if your equation is correct! Example: x = 56 seashells 84 - x = 28 84 - (56) = 28 - We plugged in 56 for "x" and it worked! Now we're positive of our answer for "x". Thanks for your question!
I feel so overwhelmed by all the information I have to memorize for my anatomy class; I can't possibly remember every little piece of information. When I'm studying, how do I know what's important and what's not?
Great question! And you're right, it is crucial to prioritize the information you study, especially in a course like anatomy. Instead of making a flashcard for every vocabulary word and trying to memorize 250 terms overnight, try this. As you move through the class, look for important themes throughout the unit. For example: - What terms does your professor pay most attention to in class? (Know those terms - they're likely on the test!) - What are the unit/chapter headings about? Try to see the big picture flow of the chapter and focus on terms that support those important ideas. - What objectives does your professor post? The objectives posted on the syllabus or powerpoint often help you see the themes. Focus on those areas and be able to perform the objectives! Prioritizing your energy on core terms will be helpful in your time management and in your understanding of the material. Looking for themes and understanding the connections between the terms will help you understand and remember them even better. You've got this!