Comment est-ce que l'enseignement en France a changé pendant le 19e siècle?
Pendant le 19e siècle, il y a eu beaucoup de changement dans les lois et les systèmes gouvernant l’enseignement en France. En étudiant la Révolution française, à la fin du 18e siècle, on peut voir le commencement des Grandes Ecoles. Au début du 19e siècle, les idées de Napoléon ont eu une grande influence sur l’importance de l’enseignement et grâce à lui, beaucoup de modifications dans l’éducation se sont passées pendant cette période. Une personne aussi importante que Napoléon en ce qui concerne les changements dans le système de l’enseignement, est Jules Ferry, dont les lois ont beaucoup influencé le système d’aujourd’hui. Cette époque a été vraiment influente à déterminer une bonne méthode pour donner de l’éducation à tous les Français et créer ainsi une population instruite, et permettre l’introduction les idées dans l’éducation, qui continuent et existent encore à notre époque.
How does the Constitution of the United States prevent tyranny within the setup of the government?
The first three articles of the US Constitution set up the three branches of the government, Legislative (Congress), Executive (the President and Cabinet), and Judicial (Supreme Court and federal courts). Within each of the articles, the Constitution addresses the requirements for each branch, and their responsibilities. Because each branch has different responsibilities, there is a separation of power, ensuring that no one person or group can have too much influence over the nation. Outside of those responsibilities, each branch has also been given certain powers over the other branches in an effort to check their power and balance it out, known appropriately as checks and balances. An example of this is that one of the responsibilities of the president is to select cabinet member and judges for the Supreme Court. Because the Executive Branch is involved in the selection of those who serve on the Supreme Court, that constitutes a check on the Judicial Branch. However, Congress has to approve selections made by the president, ensuring the Legislative Branch is able to check the power of the Executive Branch in those selections. There are many instances of these checks of power within the government, thereby creating a government that can correct itself when it encounters unjust people in positions of power.
How did increasing sectionalism in the United States in the 1800s lead to the Civil War?
In the 1800s, the United States saw the rise of political parties and the division they created in the country, in spite of the warnings George Washington gave in his Farewell Address about political parties tearing apart the young nation and creating a rivalry among different regions. As Democratic-Republicans fought against the Federalists in favor of states' rights and a weak central government, many people within the party, politicians included, realized that holding the nation together was not possible while allowing the states to do what they wanted - a problem they had encountered under the Articles of Confederation. After the Federalist Party died out, the Democratic-Republican party split into National Republicans (who later became the Whigs, and eventually Republicans), arguing the need for a strong central government, and the Democrats, arguing the opposite. The Democratic Party, under Andrew Jackson, found success in the South where those concerned with the future of slavery and their individual state's rights found the Democratic principles to be more in line with what they were needing in a government. Through the mid-1800s, the government shifted power between Democrats and Whigs seemingly every other president, and the fight over slavery continued to rise between the North and the South. As new territories and states entered the Union, the argument always turned to whether or not they would allow slaves. The final straw came when a Republican, Abraham Lincoln, was elected as president in the Election of 1860. This election infuriated those in the South, as the Republican Party had been running under an anti-slavery platform. Within months of his election, states in the South had begun to secede from the Union. The growing rivalries between North and South, perpetuated by the growth of political parties, had become too much, causing the Union to split and bringing the United States to war.